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Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 



Robin S. Harris 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 



FROM 



ITS FIRST ORGANIZATION TO 1879; WITH BIOGRAPHICAL 

SKETCHES OF ITS CHANCELLORS, PRESIDENTS, 

AND PROFESSORS. 



BY 

C. W. BUTTERFIELD, 

Author of ' Crawfo.'d's Campaign Agaiust Sandmky," " Tha Washingtou-G'niwforJ 
Letter*," etc. 



MADISON, WlS.: 

NIVKRSITY PRESS COMPANY: 
1870. 



PREFACE. 



THK history and biographical annals of the University of 
Wisconsin contained in the following- pages have appeared, 
during the past year, as a series of sketches in the Tfi c Uni- 
versity Press, a semi-monthly periodical, published in Madison, 
Wisconsin. It has been the object of the author to record 
what has been the development and growth of the University 
from its first organization to the present time; and what has 
been accomplished in a literary, scientific, or educational way, 
by those formerly connected with it as chancellors, presidents, 
or professors, and by those constituting the present faculty. 
This has necessitated the writing of the biographical sketches, 
to be found, usually, at the ending of the chapters. It is a 
matter of regret that these sketches do not appear in regular 
chronological order. Such an arrangement had been original- 
ly contemplated; but, owing to the impossibility, in most cases, 
of getting the necessary information for their completion, in 
time for insertion where they belonged, they have been intro- 
duced without regard to their proper connection with the his- 
torical part immediately preceding them. 

MAOISON, Wis., June, 187D. C. W. B. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

University of Wisconsin Dr. John H. Lathrop Prof. O. M. 
Conover Dr. James D. Butler Prof. David B. Reid Dr. Henry 
Barnard 1 

CHAPTER II. 

Territorial universities Prof. Joseph C. Pickard Prof T. N. 
Haskell Dr. P ml A. Chadbourne 8 

CHAPTER III. 

Organic law of the University Election of regents Dr. Daniel 
Read Prof. S. P. Lathrop Prof. John B. Fouling 20 

CHAPTER IV. 

Organization of the University Dr. Ezra S. Carr Prof. Charles H. 
Allen 34 

CHAPTER V. 

Organization of university classes The university site occupied 
Selection and appraisal of university lands Dr. J. H. Twombly. 43 

CHAPTER VI. 

Reappraisal of university lands Additional grant of seventy-two 
sections Fourth, fifth, and sixth university years Col. W. R. 
Pease Prof. John B. Fuchs Prof. Auguste Kursteiner Prof. 
Addison E. Verrill Col. Walter S. Franklin Judge Byron Paine 
Harlow 8. Orton, LL. D 55 



VI CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VII. 

Seventh and eighth university years Normal and agricultural 
departments created Attempts to organize medical and legal 
departments Organization of the Athenaean literary society 
Dark days of the University Prof. J. W. Sterling 66 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Hesperian society incorporated Reorganization of the Univer- 
sity Prot. William F. Allen 78 

CHAPTER IX. 

The ninth, tenth, and eleventh university years An alumni associa- 
tion organized Universit}- hall erected Dr. Barnard inaugurated 
chancellor Holding of a normal institute at the University 
Resignation of Dr. Barnard as chancellor Prof. J. B. Parkinson. 86 

CHAPTER X. 

Twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth university years Organization 
of a military company in the University The University during 
the war Reopening of the normal department Admission of 
ladies Fifteenth and sixteenth university years Ex-oflicio and 
other regents A dark hour SMi 

CHAPTER XI. 

The congressional agricultural college act of 1862 Additional land 
grant to the University Legislative act of 1866, reorganizing and 
enlarging the University Prof. W. W. Daniells .'.- 105 

CHAPTER XII. 

The law of 1866 a contingent one Appointment of regents Pur- 
chase of an experimental farm The University at date of reorgan- 
ization Attempt to t)btain a president Prof. J. E. Davies 114 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The seventeenth university year Pecuniary assistance by the state 
Amendatory law of 1867 Paul A. Chadbourne elected president 
Reconstruction measures adopted The normal department con- 
timied Prof. Stephen H. Carpenter 123 



CONTENTS. Vll 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Prof. Roland D. Irving Capt. William J. L. Nicodomiu; 186 

CHAPTER XV. 

Eighteenth university year Progress of reconstruction A female- 
college established Departments of agriculture and of engineer- 
ing and military tactics organized A law department created 
Reconstruction accomplished Nineteenth university year Prof. 
Alexander Kerr 147 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Dr. J ohn Bascom 150 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Twentieth university year Resignation of President Chadbourne 
Commencement of ladies' hall Erection of a gymnasium 
Prosperity of the University Instructional force for the nine- 
teenth and twentieth university years Prof. R. B. Anderson I (is 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

The Uiu'ee ratty J'rK>i established Twenty-first university yea:- 
Ladies' hall completed J. H.Twombly elected president Tewnty. 
second university year Honorary degrees conferred by the Uni- 
versity An annual appropriation secured Appointment of a 
board of visitors Free tuition granted to graduates of grade:! 
schools Twenty-third university year Coeducation of the sexes 
established Twenty-fourth university year Resignation of J. H. 
T \vombly Election of John Bascom as president Broad char- 
acter of the University University and agricultural college lands 
Prof. David B. Frankenburger * 182 

CHAPTER XIX, 

Twenty-fifth university year The Lewis prize Appropriation lor 
science hall Soldiers' orphans' home donated to the University 
An assembly hall to be erected Legislative appropriation to 
the university fund income Twenty-sixth university year Pur- 
chase of the Lapham cabinet and library Construction of a mag- 
netic observatory Faculty and instructors from 1872 to 187C 
The Johnson bequest Twenty-seventh university year 11 5 



VI 11 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XX. 

Coeducation of the sexes Twenty-eighth university year The 
Washburn astronomical observatory erected and furnished Com- 
pletion of science hall Instructional force for the twenty-seventh 
and twenty-eighth university years 207 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Literary societies Regents and officers of the board Law of 1878 
Biogarphical sketches of law professors Professors elected 
Assembly hall and library Twenty-ninth university year 
Conclusion 218 



OF THE 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 



CHAPTER I. 

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN DR. JOHN H. LATHROP PROF. O. 

M. CONOVER DR. JAMES D. BUTLER PROF. DAVID B. REID 

DR. HENRY BARNARD. 

The University of Wisconsin is, in all respects, a state in- 
stitution. The constitution declares that " provision shall be 
made by law for the establishment of a state university, at or 
near the seat of state government." Its organization, there- 
fore, was imperative, and was effected by virtue of legislative 
enactments. Having accepted donations from the general gov- 
ernment and from individuals, and by reason of its own appro- 
priations, the state is fully committed to its support. The ob- 
ject of the University is, as declared by the act of its organiza- 
tion to provide the inhabitants of Wisconsin with the means 
of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various branches of 
literature, science, and the arts. Its government is vested in a 
board of regents. The institution embraces a college of arts, a 
college of. letters, and a law school. No religious tenets or 
opinions are required of any person connected with it, either as 



2 SKETCHES OF THE 

teacher or scholar. It is open to pupils of both sexes, and the 
tuition is free to all residents of the state. It has excellent 
buildings, is liberally endowed, and well patronized. What has 
been the development and growth of the University, and what 
has been accomplished in a literary, scientific, or educational 
way, by those formerly connected with it as chancellors, presi- 
dents, or professors, and by those constituting the present 
faculty, it is the object of these sketches to record. 

By the act of the general assembly of 1848, establishing the 
University, the regents of the institution were given power, 
and it was made their duty, to elect a chancellor, who should 
be, by virtue of his office, president of their board. John H. 
Lathrop, LL. D., was elected to that office the same year; and, 
after a professorship of ethics, civil polity, and political econ- 
omy had been established, the duties of that chair were as- 
signed him. He continued to fill these positions until January, 
1859, when his resignation, made some time previous, was 
accepted. Although afterward called to the professorship of 
ethical and political science, he soon resigned that chair also 
and left the state. Such, in a word, is a statement of Chancel- 
lor Lathrop's connection with the University of Wisconsin. 

As Dr. Lathrop is no longer numbered among the living, it 
is eminently befitting the occasion that brief mention be made 
of his life -especially of his services as an educationist. He 
was born in Sherburne, Chenango county, New York, January 
"-22, 1799. He entered Hamilton college as freshman, but left 
that institution at the close of his sophomore year to enter the 
junior class at Yale. After graduation, he was preceptor of 
the grammar school at Farmington, Connecticut, six months, 
and of Munro academy, Weston, same state, two years. From 
March, 1822, to September, 1826, he was tutor in Yale college, 
and, in the summer of 1827, was employed as instructor in the 
military academy at Norwich, Vermont. He afterward became 
principal of the Gardiner lycex*n, at Gardiner, Maine, where 
lie remained nearly two years. In 1829, he was called to 
Hamilton college as professor of mathematics and natural phi- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 3 

losophy. In 1833, he married the daughter of John H. Lothrop 
a slight change in name for the lady, nevertheless, a change. 
In 1835, he was advanced to the Maynard professorship of law, 
civil polity and political economy, he having, while tutor in 
Yale college, pursued a course of studies in the law school of 
that institution, and afterward having been admitted to the 
bar. He was chosen, in 1840, president of the University of 
Missouri, entering upon his duties in the following March, and 
holding his post till April, 1848, when, as before stated, he was 
elected to the chancellorship of the University of Wisconsin. 
In 1859, he was called to the presidency of the University of 
Indiana, but the next year returned to Columbia, Missouri, as 
professor of English literature in the institution he had formerly 
presided over, and was made chairman of the faculty in 1865. 
He became a second time president of that university in 1865, 
holding the position at the time of his death, which occurred 
August 2, same year. In 1845, he received the degree of 
doctor, of laws from Hamilton college. 

Dr. Lathrop, although seldom assaying authorship, was, nev- 
ertheless, a ready writer. His style was peculiarly energetic 
and picturesque. Take this example, from his inaugural ad- 
dress, of January 16, 1850, at Madison, as chancellor: "Noth- 
ing short of the universal culture of the popular mind can save 
from dissolution the great fabric of European civilization;" 
where, as is usually the case, the energy of his words are in 
keeping with the comprehensiveness of the thought. The fol- 
lowing from his inaugural, upon the occasion of his assuming 
the presidency of the University of Indiana, gives a fair idea 
of the pic : :urosqueness of his style: "Look through the length 
and breadth of our land, and count if you can the literary cor- 
portions which have, in the beginning, mistaken the building 
for the university; exhausting their funds and incurring debt 
in the erection of costly edifices, leaving nothing for books and 
apparatus, and less than nothing for the living instructor. 
How many of these splendid temples may be found almost 
without a priest and without a worshipper; all beautiful and 



4 SKETCHES OF THE 

attractive without, while all within is vacancy and silence 
still as the habitation of the dead; or, if tenanted at all, per- 
chance it is by the gaunt forms of literary mendicants, heart- 
sick with promises 'made to the ear, but broken to the hope,* 
luckless candidates for a speedy immortality!" 

Among Dr. Lathrop's published efforts are (besides his in- 
augural addresses) "A Topographical Description of Wiscon- 
sin," "Address at the First State Fair in Wisconsin," "Eulogy 
on Henry Clay," "Report of the Board of Visitors to the Mili- 
tary Academy at West Point," and " In Memoriam." Upon 
the occasion of his resigning the chancellorship of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, the board of regents declared that his long, 
faithful, and able administration of the affairs of the institution 
met with their unqualified approval. 

The first professorship of ancient languages and literature 
was established in the University in 1852, and O. M. Conover, 
A. M., was called to the chair, occupying it, acceptably, until 
1858, when he resigned. He was born in Dayton, Ohio, Octo- 
ber 7, 1825; he graduated at Princeton in 1844. He spent the 
next two years in teaching, when he entered the Princeton 
theological seminary, graduating in 1849. In 1850, he edited, 
at Maditon, a literary and educational periodical^the North- 
western Journal which was abandoned at the end of three 
months as a premature adventure in Wisconsin. He delivered, 
on the twenty-second of February, 1858, an address on the 
" Life and Character of Washington," before the University, 
which was repeated three years afterward, before the assembly 
of the state, at their chamber in the capitol, by their request. 
The same year, he addressed the state teachers' association, as 
its president, on "A Perfect System of Education." He became 
a member of the Wisconsin bar in 18,59, and one of the mem- 
bers of the board of regents about the same time, serving in 
that capacity six years. He has delivered various addresses 
before literary institutions, and contributed articles to a number 
of educational, religious, and political journals. The literary 
career of Prof. Conover may be said to have commenced in ear- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 5 

nest with his labors as official reporter of the supreme court of 
Wisconsin. Twenty-seven volumes, beginning with No. XVI of 
the reports of that court, have each his name upon its title-page. 
With four exceptions, these have all been prepared exclusively 
by him and printed under his supervision. To the outside 
world, literary work of such a nature must, of necessity, be but 
little known. Not so, however, to the bench and bar and 
especially to the bench and bar of Wisconsin, who highly ap- 
preciate the legal as well as literary ability displayed in the 
preparation, arrangement, and publication of these reports. 

The successor of Prof. Conover, in the chair of ancient lan- 
guages and literature in the University, was James D. Butler, 
LL. D., who held the position with credit for nine years from 
1858 to 1867 when he resigned. He was born in Rutland, 
Vermont, March 15, 1815, graduating at Middlebury college, 
in that state, in 1836. He also passed through the theological 
seminary at Andover, and was graduated in 1840. He became 
professor of ancient languages in Norwich university in 1845, 
continuing in that service for two years. From January, 1855, 
to the close of the college year for 1858, he was professor of 
Greek in Wabash college, Indiana. He afterward received 
the degree of doctor of laws from Middlebury college. Al- 
though not an author of books, Prof. Butler is, notwithstand- 
ing, a most prolific writer. Few men in the United States, 
perhaps, "live, move, and have their being," more completely 
in a purely literary atmosphere. Among his publications, be* 
sides a collection of fugitive poems, are " Nebraska Its Char- 
acteristics and Prospects," " Incentives to Mental Culture 
among Teachers," " Naming of America," U A Defense of 
Classical Studies," " Scenes in the Life of Christ," "Catalogue 
of Coins and Medals," "Armsmear," " Pre-Historic Wisconsin," 
and "Nebraska in 1877." He has written many articles foi 
the Sibliotheca /Sacra and other periodicals; has traveled in 
all the continents, and lectured much on his travels. He came 
west as pastor of the first Congregational church in Cincinnati. 

The chair of physiology and hygiene, created in 1859, in the 



University, was filled by the election of David B. Reid, M. D., 
F. R. S. E., who became also director of the 'museum of prac- 
tical science. He resigned the professorship in 1861, remov- 
ing to St. Paul, Minnesota. He was born in Edinburgh, Scot-- 
land, in 1805; came to the United States in 1856; and died at 
Washington, D. C., April 5, 1863. He was educated at the 
University of his native city and became eminent as a teacher 
of chemistry and in the application of proper ventilation to 
public buildings. After severing his connection with the 
University of Wisconsin, he was appointed medical inspector 
to the sanitary commission United States army, and died while 
in the active discharge of the duties of that office. "Dr. Reid," 
wrote Henry Barnard, "has done more for public sanitary re- 
form and the ventilation of houses, than any man who has 
lived." Among his published worlds are ^'Introduction, to the 
Study of Chemistry ? " "Elements of Chemistry," "Text Book 
for Students of Chemistry," and other books on the same sub- 
ject. He was the author, also, of several works on ventilatipn. 
In 1861, he wrote a " Short Plea for the Revision of Education 
in Science." He furnished the article pn ventilation for the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica; was the author of numerous reports 
and documents on various subjects, and of -.papers in several 
scientific journals .and in publications of the Smithsonian In- 

...... * -<. :> .<.H.i ( '. -Ti-.r ..'!.:'- 

stitution. 

The board of regents of the University, at their semi-annual 
meeting in July, 1858, elected as chancellor of the institution, 
Henry Barnard, LL. D., to fill the place made vacant by the 
resignation of Chancellor Lathrop, assigning to him the pro- 
fessorship of normal instruction. He was inducted into office 
July 27, 1859. In July, 1860, he resigned his position, his 
resignation being accepted on the seventh of January follow- 
ing. He was born in Hartford, Connecticut, January 14, 1811, 
graduating at Yale college in 1830, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1835. In 1837, he was elected to represent his native 
city in the state legislature, serving three years. His first an- 
nual report as secretary of the board of commissioners of com- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 7 

mon schools was presented in 1839, "a bold and startling 
document," wrote Chancellor Kent, " founded on the most 
pains-taking and critical inquiry, and containing a minute, ac- 
curate, comprehensive, and instructive exhibition of the prac- 
tical condition and operation of the common school svstem of 
education." He had charge of the public schools of Rhode 
Island from 1843 to 1849. He was superintendent of common 
schools in Connecticut from 1850 to 1854. In 1855, he became 
president of the American association for the advancement of 
education, and in 1867, first commissioner of the department 
of education at Washington. Among Dr. Barnard's principal 
works are "Educational Tracts," "Education in Factories," 
"Reports on Public Schools in Rhode Island," "Normal 
Schools in the United States and Europe," " Tribute to Gal- 
laudet," "Educational Biography," "School Libraries," "His- 
tory of Education in Connecticut," "National Education in 
Europe," "School Architecture," "Hints and Methods for the 
Use of 'Teachers." In August, 1855, he began the publication 
of the American Journal of Education, which is still contin- 
ued. He had previously edited other periodicals somewhat simi- 
lar in their aim. Dr. Vogel of Leipzic, declared that Dr. Barn- 
ard, in writing on school architecture, had "created a new depart- 
ment in educational literature." The Westminster Review for 
January, 1854, said: " Mr. Barnard, in his work on ' National 
Education in Europe,' has collected and arranged more val- 
uable information and statistics than can be found in any one 
volume in the English language. It groups under one view 
the varied experience of nearly all civilized countries." A 
gentleman of such extensive attainments in everything .ap- 
pertaining to popular education, naturally attracted the at- 
tention of the regents of the University of Wisconsin, as a 
suitable person for the chancellorship. He has received the 
degree of doctor of laws from Yale, Harvard, and Union 
colleges. 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER II. 

TERRITORIAL UNIVERSITIES PROF. JOSEPH C. PICKARD PROF. 

T. X. HASKELL DR. PAVL A. CHADBOVRNE. 

" I recommend," said Henry Dodge, governor of the territo- 
ry of Wisconsin, in his message, which was delivered Oc- 
tober 26, 1836, to the first legislative assembly, then convened 
at Belmont, " I recommend the propriety of asking from con- 
gress a donation of one township of land, to be sold and the 
proceeds of the sale placed under the direction of the legisla- 
tive assembly of this territory, for the establishment of an 
academy for the education of youth; the institution to be gov- 
erned by such laws and regulations, and to be erected at such 
place as the legislative assembly may designate." " It is a 
duty we owe to the rising generation," continued the governor, 
*' to endeavor to devise means to improve the condition of those 
that are to succeed us; the permanence of our institutions 
must depend upon the intelligence of the great mass of the 
people." This was the first official action looking to the es- 
tablishment of an institution of learning, by governmental aid, 
upon territory now constituting the state of Wisconsin. 
Whether the governor had in his mind in this " academy for 
the education of youth," the establishing of an institution of 
the high grade of a college or university is not altogether cer- 
tain. His suggestion to memorialize congress was not acted 
upon. However, an act was passed which was approved De- 
cember 8, 1836, to establish " at Belmont, in the county of 
Iowa, a university for the puipose of educating youth, the 
style, name, and title whereof" was "the Wisconsin Universi- 
ty," the institution to be under the management, direction, 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 9 

and government of twenty-one trustees, of whom the governor 
of the terriory, for the time being, was, by virtue of his office, 
to be one. But even so large a body was insufficient to breathe 
into "the Wisconsin University" the breath of life; and its or- 
ganization was never effected. 

At the second session of the legislative assembly of the ter- 
ritory, held at Burlington, in what is now the state of Iowa, an 
act was passed, which was approved December 13, 1837, "to 
establish the Wisconsin University of Green Bay." This, like 
its predecessor at Belmont, never existed but in name, not- 
withstanding its corporate designation was changed the next 
year, to that of the " Hobart University of Green Bay." Fol- 
lowing closely upon the act of 1837 incorporating the Green 
Bay institution was one approved January 19, 1838, establish- 
ing " the University of the Territory of Wisconsin," at or near 
Madison, the seat of government. This institution was placed 
under the control of a board of visitors not exceeding 
twenty-one in number, of whom the governor and the secreta- 
ry of the territory, the judges of the supreme court, and the 
president of the University, were to be members. As if deter- 
mined that the institution should survive, it was declared that 
whenever the word " territory " occurred in the body of the 
law it should read " state," after the territory became one. On 
the same day of the approval of this act by the governor, a 
joint resolution passed the legislative assembly, directing the 
territorial delegate in congress to ask of that body an appro- 
priation in money, for the University, of twenty thousand dol- 
lars for the erection of buildings, and also an appropriation or 
two townships of vacant lands for its endowment, to be lo- 
cated east of the Mississippi river. The money asked for was 
not given; but the general government, by a law approved 
June 12, thereafter, authori/ed the secretary of the treasury of 
the United States to set apart and reserve from sale, out of any 
of the public lands within the territory, to which the Indian 
title was then or might thereafter be extinguished, and not 
otherwise appropriated, a quantity of land not exceeding two 



!(/ SKETCHES OF THE 

entire townships forty -six thousand and eighty acres for the 
support of a university; what institution. was to be the recipi- 
ent of this donation, congress did not declare. However, steps 
were soon taken to induce the legislative assembly of the ter- 
ritory to appropriate these lands u for the benefit of the uni- 
versity of the territory of Wisconsin, to be located at or near 
Madison, in the county of Dane;" but they were never so ap- 
propriated while Wisconsin remained a territory; and imme- 
diately after the admission of the state into the union, the act 
incorporating the " University of the territory of Wisconsin,'"' 
was repealed by the same law that established the present in- 
stitution the law approved July 26, 1848, revised and re-enact- 
ed in 1849. When, therefore, provision had been made by law 
for the establishment of a state university, as provided in the 
constitution of Wisconsin, then, by the fundamental law of the 
state, the proceeds of all lands that had been or might be 
granted by the United States to the state for the support of an 
institution of the kind, were to be set apart as a perpetual 
fund, the interest of which should be appropriated for that pur- 
pose. The University of Wisconsin was thus established and 
made secure of an endowment. 

In 1858, the University was re-organized. All chairs were 
abolished and all appointments to the same declared vacated. 
As before mentioned, Dr. Barnard was called to the chancel- 
lorship, and Drs. Lathrop and Butler to professorships. Joseph 
C. Pickard, A. M., was, at the same time, elected to the chair 
of modern languages and literature, filling that position until 
1861. In January, 1865, he \vas appointed the successor of 
Prof. Charles H. Allen, in the normal department, which had 
been established in the institution in 1863. He continued in 
that position during the year, when he resigned. The literary 
reputation of Prof. Pickard rests, to a considerable extent up- 
on his translations, chiefly from the German language. These 
include stories, plays, and poems. He seems to catch, with 
facility, the spirit of the originals, transfusing it into English 
in a style decidedly pleasing. Take the following (which was 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 11 

commended by the late Prof. .1. B. Feuling, of the University 
of Wisconsin) as an illustration: 

"EVENING MELANCHOLY. 

JFrom the Gernmn of Salis.] 

Over the pine trees shone the lamp of Hesper ; 
Gently died away the red glow of evening; 
And the quaking aspens by the still fish-pond 
Rustled all softly. 

Images spectral rose from out the twilight, 

Born of Memory. Sadly then, around me, 

: Hovered forms of the far distant loved ones 

And the departed. 

*Ah holy shadows! here, on earth, no evening- 
Can unite us all ! ' in loneliness sighed I ; 
Sunk now was Hesper, and the mournful aspens 
: , Rustled forth sadness." 

Among other translations of fugitive pieces, " The Silent 
Land'" and "Harvest Home," both from Salis, may be men- 
tioned with favor. In the "Song of the Spirits' Over the 
Waters," from Goethe, there is much to admire.. The last two 
stanzas will give a fair idea of the translator's fel-city in cloth- 
ing the German poet's ideas in English: 

" Wind woos the water, 
Tenderly, fondly, 
Stirs up the billows 
In foam from the depths! 

Soul that is human ,. 
How like to the water! 
Destiny human 
How like to the wind ! " 

In his efforts in English prose, Prof. Pickard has confined 
himself largely to pieces written for the newspapers. It may 
be difficult to find a more poetical description of the Chicago 
fire-fiend than in the following, from the Portland 7 
on the great fire : 



12 SKETCHES OF THE 

" Thousands of homes, beautiful and bright, went down in 
an instant and disappeared forever, at the touch of that fiend 
whose feet were the whirlwind; whose voice, a roar as from 
the throat of hell; whose breath, a heaven-obscuring smoke; 
whose arms, devouring flames ! " 

Prof. Pickard was born in Rowley, Massachusetts, in 1826. 
He received his academic training in Lewiston Falls academy, 
Maine, and his collegiate, in Bowdoin college, where he grad- 
uated in 1846. From 1852 to 1856, he was tutor in Illinois 
college, Jacksonville, where he taught modern languages, Lat- 
in, and rhetoric. Since 1873, he has filled the chair of rhetoric 
and English literature in the Illinois Industrial university, at 
Urbana. 

In 1867, T. N. Haskell, A. M., was called -to the chair of 
rhetoric and English literature in the University, which he 
filled with credit until 1868, when he resigned. He was born 
in Chautauqua county, New York, January 20, 1826, but was 
taken in his infancy to Bloomfield, Trumbull county, Ohio. 
His parents died when he was young, leaving him entirely de- 
pendent upon his own resources for an education. He com- 
menced teaching in Warren, the county-seat of Trumbull 
county, when only sixteen years of age. He graduated at the 
Miami university, at Oxford, Ohio, in 1851. He afterwards 
studied and taught two years in Oberlin college, same state. 
Prof. Haskell at one time presided over Wayne academy, in 
Ashtabula county, Ohio; was principal of the high school at 
Sandusky, in that state,and of a female seminary in New York 
city. He spent one year in Andover theological seminary. 
While there, he married a daughter of President Justin Ed- 
wards. He was graduated from Union theological seminary, 
in New York, in 1854, and went at once to the pastorate of 
the Western Presbyterian church, Washington city; after- 
wards called to Boston, where he was a settled pastor for eight 
years. He traveled a year in foreign countries, and then came 
to Wisconsin to accept the chair tendered him in the Univer- 
sity. He subsequently preached in Aurora, Illinois, until the 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 13 

health of his family compelled him to change his residence. 
He removed to Denver, Colorado, in 1873, where he still resides. 

Prof. Haskell is a fluent speaker and ready writer. Before 
leaving Illinois, he contributed several political articles to the 
press and made a number of political speeches (he is a repub- 
lican in politics), which were declared by some of the promi- 
nent members of his party to be of a superior order. So, also, 
in Colorado, where the state senate in March, 1877, unanimous- 
ly affirmed that his political speeches in the previous presiden- 
tial campaign were distinguished for their statesmanlike abil- 
ity, scholarly accuracy and candor, and were highly apprecia- 
ted by thinking men of all political affinities and faith. He 
lias cultivated the lecture field with marked success, his favor- 
ite topic being descriptions of oriental countries. 

Prof. Haskell has written fugitive pieces of poetry of con- 
siderable merit. Among these may be mentioned "The Coun- 
try's Call to Arms," and a "Centennial Thanksgiving Hymn.'* 
An ode composed for Lincoln's funeral obsequies, published 
in the National Intelligencer of April 19, 1865, is wcrthy of 
commendation. His prose writings are numerous. Many of his 
sermons, sketches, memoirs, essays, and addresses, have been 
printed. He was instrumental in starting, in 1874, the Colo- 
rado college, at Colorado Springs, the first institution of the 
kind in the Rocky mountains; and his address and report be- 
fore the general congregational conference of January 20, of 
that year, in furtherance of the project, were interesting: 

At the educational convention held in Denver, in December, 
1875,* Prof. Haskell, from the committee on education of Span- 
ish children, reported a series of resolutions, advocating the 
employment by the legislature of a Spanish-speaking assistant 
superintendent for three months in each year, for three years, 
among Mexico-Spanish citizens, in developing the English com- 
mon school svstem for the benefit of their children. City 

*Resoluciones en favor dc instruccion en la lengua Castellana. paradas 
par la convencion educacional, convenida en Denver, en el mes cle Diri- 
einbre, de 1875. 



14 SKETCHES OF THE 

school boards were asked to invite Spanish youth to attend their 
high schools free of charge. The resolutions commended the 
study and colloquial use of the Spanish language to teachers, 
and recommended that a popular compendium of the common 
school system and its modes of usefulness to the rising genera- 
tion of American citizens of all classes, be prepared arid pub- 
lished in Spanish, 

Prof. Haskell paints pen-pictures with fidelity. Take 
these few words upon the Nile: "Here we are now on the 
bosom of that marvelous river. It is the cool of the day in 
Egypt. The air is most charming, and clearer than crystal. 
The waters are unusually placid. The current beneath us is 
vigorous but even. The banks are low, level and fertile cov- 
ered with a rich compost of sand and slime". Every thing vis- 
ible is suggestive of the value of this noble river to all this re- 
gion. It was Herodotus who wrote thousands of years ago 
when beholding it: 'Egypt is the gift of the Nile.'" 

From the date of the acceptance of the resignation of Dr. 
Barnard, in January, 1861, by the board of regents of the Uni- 
versity, to June 22, 1867, there was a vacancy in the chief 
office of the institution. On that day, Hon. Paul A. Chad- 
bourne, A. M., M. D.} was chosen president as the head of 
the faculty was now called. Prof. Chadbourne was, at the 
same time, elected to the chair of mental and moral philoso- 
phy. He was born in North Berwick, Maine, October 21, 
1823. In early life, he supported himself by working on the 
farm in summer and in a carpenter-shop in winter; subsequent- 
ly, he served two years in a drug-store. At the age of nine- 
teen, he entered Phillips Exeter academy, New Hampshire. 
There he qualified himself to enter the sophomore class of 
Williams college, Williamstown, Massachusetts. He began his 
studies in that institution in the fall of 1845, and Graduated 

~ 

with the valedictory oration in 1848. 

Prof. Chadbourne taught one year in Freehold, New Jersey, 
at the same time studying theology. He afterwards studied 
in the theological seminary at East Windsor, Connecticut. In 







PAUL A. CHADBOURNE, D.D., LL.D. 

FIRST PRESIDENT STA TE UNIVERSITY. 



TNIVEKSITY OF WISCONSIN. 15 

the spring of 1850, he took charge of the high school at Great 
Falls, New Hampshire, and was married the same year, in Exe- 
ter, to Elizabeth Sawyer Page. In 1851, he was a tutor in 
Williams college. He next became principal of the academy 
at East Windsor Hill, Connecticut, In May, 1853, he was 
called to the chair of chemistry and botany in Williams col- 
lege, which he held for fourteen years; for half that time, com- 
mencing in 1858, filling a like position in Bowdoin college, 
Maine. This period abounded in labors. He was professor 
in three institutions at the same time, spending a part of the 
year in each. In 1859, he visited the Scandinavian countries 
of Europe, making an extensive tour, including Iceland, Sub- 
sequently, he led a scientific expedition to Greenland. In 
1860, he published four lectures on natural history, previously 
delivered at the Smithsonian Institution, and gave a course of 
lectures in Western Reserve college, in Ohio. He was three 

O ' 

years professor in Berkshire medical college, and for twelve 
years 'gave a course of chemical lectures in Mount Holyoke 
female seminary, Hampshire county, Massachusetts. 

Prof. Charlbourne was two years 1865 and 1866 a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts senate, during which time he deliver- 
ed a course of lectures before the Lowell institute, on Natural 
Theology, which were afterward published, and have been 
extensively used as a text- book in colleges. He was elected 
president of the Agricultural college in Amherst, Massachu- 
setts, and while occupying that position was offered and ac- 
cepted the presidency of the University of Wisconsin. After 
leaving this institution, he returned to Massachusetts, and, On 
the twenty-seventh of July, 1872, succeeded Rev. Dr. Mark 
Hopkins as president of Williams college, which position he 
still holds. The degree of doctor of medicine was conferred 
upon him by the Berkshire medical college, in 1859; that ot 
doctor of laws, by Williams college, in 1868; and that of doc- 
tor of divMiity, by Amherst college, in 1872. In the last men- 
tioned year, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of 
Northern Antiquaries, Copenhagen. 



16 SKETCHES OF THE 

Dr. Chadbourrte resigned his office in June, 1870, as presf- 
Aent of the University of Wisconsin, a step made imperative- 
became of his enfeebled health. The necessity for this was- 
regretted by all friends of the Institution. "Possessed of 
remarkable executive ability and tact r ' T writes Dr. S. H, 
Carpenter,, "a sharp-sighted business man, and gifted with 
a quiek insight and readiness to determine character, and a 
thorough knowledg-e of men, he was well adapted to the work 
of reorganizing the University; but the continuous mental 
strain told upon his somewhat delicate constitution, and he 
was compelled to retire,' 7 

As an instructor in natural science, Dr. Chadbounie, has 
but few equals in the United States. His pre-eminence, in 
this regard, consists in the fact that he selects well the leading- 
gerrmnant points, and enforces primary truths strongly on the 
mind. His- scholarship is cosmopolitan in its range; he does 
well a great variety of things. He may be said to have an un- 
tiring executive ability. His administration of a colleg-e is char- 
acterized by a general wide-awakeness and by a careful over- 
sight of details, 

"It is a matter of deep regret," said the reg-ents, in their 
report of 1870, u that we have to record the withdrawal of 
Paul A. Chadbourne from the presidency of the University, 
The board were long aware that the Irealth and private inter- 
ests of the president had determined him to give up his charge, 
but they still hoped that he might be induced to continue his 
place. His service as president closed with the collegiate 
year; and the regents feel it due to President Chadbourne, to 
themselves, to the University, and to the state, to express their 
conviction that his departure is a great loss to the educational 
interests of Wisconsin." 

Dr. Chadbourne is not, in the popular acceptation of the 
term, an. author of books; nevertheless, he has published three 
distinct works, "Lectures on Natural History," "Natural 
Theology," and " Instinct in Animals and Men," and two small 
volumes of selected bacalaureate and memorial sermons. These 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 17 

are books of genuine merit the natural outgrowth of profess- 
ional study and instruction in college; in other words, they are 
lectures and collegiate discourses put in print. In the first of 
these, he defines natural history to be "the study of the earth 
as pne mass, and of every object upon its surface and within its 
crust." Surely, this is a very succinct and comprehensive defi- 
nition. " We ask you," he continues, " to enter the portals of 
this great temple, and read the thought of the Builder in every 
separate stone, and its joining. Nothing is superfluous noth- 
ing is wanting. Every line, seemingly useless in the separate 
stones, serves to show their true place in the arch or dome. 
And not a single tint could be lost without marring the grand 
picture which the pieces all conspire to form. They are like 
the colored glass of some grand old cathedral window form- 
ing a picture unseen by those who pass on the outer side of the 
temple, but to those within, giving gorgeous tints and celes- 
tial groups." 

In his " Natural Theology," Prof. Chadbourne presents the 
great outlines of his subject in a form easily understood by all. 
This work serves to " awaken in the student a love for the study 
of nature and lead him on to independent observation in this 
most profitable field of human thought." Its popularity is 
shown by the fact that it has already passed beyond its twelfth 
edition. His "Instinct in Animals and Men," is well calcu- 
lated to " quicken the interest of the student in the study of na- 
ture," and in a more thorough investigation of his own complex 
powers, so that his relations to the world can be better under- 
stood. Besides these lectures and sermons, he has written 
much and written well. His printed addresses, his com- 
munications to various periodicals, his articles in cyclopae- 
dias, more than fifty titles in all, present an array of lit- 
erary work really quite surprising. Education, medicine, agri- 
culture, horticulture, history, home life, Utah and the Mor- 
mons, labor, Iceland, and many other subjects, have received 
attention at his hands. He is at home whether discoursing 

O 

upon "Co-operative Farming" or "Dogmatism in Science;" 



18 * SKETCHES OF THE 

upon "Immortality" or "Ancient Shell-beds of Maine;" upon 
"Sabbath Breaking" or the " Birds of the North." 

In his inaugural address as president of Williams college, 
Dr. Chadbourne sketched the demands of the "New Educa- 
tion " on American colleges, and thus stated the attitude borne 
towards it by the institution over which he was called to preside: 
"The schools of agriculture and technology are doing the work 
which must be done in special investigations, and the applica- 
tion of science, leaving the college free for the work it was in- 
tended to accomplish, the high cultivation oj man, as a founda- 
tion and preparation for any pursuit in life to give a training 
not for any special kind of life, but to make all life worth hav- 
ing not to make specialists, but to so develop the whole man 
.that no professional or special study shall destroy the symme- 
try of character which is a comfort to its possessor and a bless- 
ing to the world. 

" The college, then, seeks to educate not the lawyer, the 
minister, the farmer, the artizan, the merchant, or the tetcher, 
as such, but the man, so that he may engraft professional knowl- 
edge upon his education to the best advantage, that all pro- 
fessions may have the same basis, as they ought to have, since 
the man is of more importance and has a more important work 
to do in the world than mere professional labor." 

The following, from Dr. Chadbourne's eulogy upon Edward 
Everett, delivered in the Massachusetts senate January 20, 
1865, exhibits his style in a somewhat striking light: 

" MR. PRESIDENT: It is eminently proper that we should 
turn aside from the ordinary duties of this chamber to pay our 
brief tribute of respect to the memory of a great man. Ed- 
ward Everett was a great man among great men. It was his 
lot, sir, to live and walk with a race of intellectual giants. 
And if we consider the rare combination of native power with 
vast acquirements, he was hardly surpassed by any man of his 
time. He was a scholar, an orator, a statesman, and a patriot. 
How perfect and beautiful was his life, how transcendently beau- 
tiful its close! No broken shaft can be its symbol. It was like 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 19 

the lofty marble column, without spot or blemish, its flutings 
perfect, its capital entire. 

" I shall ever consider it among the fortunate events in my 
life, that I heard his last words in Faneuil Hall. There his 
great heart gushed forth, breaking down the forms of elaborate 
and studied oratory so commonly attributed to him. With 
what loving enthusiasm was he greeted by the hundreds who 
had so often hung upon his lips. And how did his words give 
us courage for the conflict and charity for the returning prodi- 
o~als. * * * * * * * * * * 

"His eloquent words remain, but his eloquent lips are closed 
forever in death. He has completed his warfare. We may 
place his statue in the vacant place in front of the capitol, but 
his spear leans against the wall, and who is there left mighty 
enough to wield it? But how little, sir, of such a man can die! 
His death seems to me like one of those splendid summer nights 
in the far north, where the sun indeed sinks beneath the horizon, 
but where his midnight light curtains the heavens with purple 
and gold, more gorgeous and beautiful than his noonday glory." 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER III. 

ORGANIC LAW OF THE UNIVERSITY ELECTION OF REGENTS 

DR. DANIEL READ PROF. S. P. LATHROP PROF. JOHN K. 

FEULING. 

The establishment and endowment of the University of Wis- 
consin, and the giving of it a non-sectarian character, were 
made imperative by the constitution of the state; "all other mat- 
ters connected with the institution were to be provided for by 
law. The legislature was not slow in passing an act for its 
establishment "at or near the village of Madison, in the county 
of Dane;" the act being approved by the governor, July 26, 
1848. The law declared that the name and style of the insti- 
tution should be " the University of Wisconsin." It further 
declared that its government should be vested in a board of 
regents to consist of a president and twelve members. The 
regents were given power, and it was made their duty, to enact 
laws for the government of the University; to elect a chancel- 
lor, and to appoint the requisite number of professors and 
tutors, and such other officers as might be deemed expedient; 
the chancellor to be, by virtue of his office, president of the 
board of regents. The members of tho board were to be elect- 
ed by the general assembly of the state. The regents and their 
successors in office were constituted a body corporate with the 
name and style of the "Regents of the University of Wiscon- 
sin," with the right, as such, of suing and being sued, of con- 
tracting and being contracted with, of making and using a 
common seal and altering the same at pleasure. 

The University, it was declared, should consist of four de- 
partments: first, a department of science, literature, and the 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 21 

arts; second, a department of law; third, a department of med- 
icine; fourth, a department of the theory and practice of ele- 
mentary instruction. The immediate government of the sev- 
eral departments was intrusted to their respective faculties; but 
to the regents was given power to regulate the course of in- 
struction and prescribe, under the advice of the professorships, 
the books and authorities to be used in the several depart- 
ments, and also to confer such degrees and grant such diplomas 
as are usually granted and conferred by other universities. The 
regents were also given power to determine the amount to be 
paid as salaries to officers of the institution, to purchase a suit- 
able site for the erection of the University buildings, and to 
proceed to the erection of them as soon as they might deem it 
expedient; but the salaries thus determined upon, the site thus 
selected, and the plan of the buildings thus to be erected, were 
to be submitted to the legislature of the state for approval. 
They were authorized to expend such portion of the in- 
come of the University fund as they might deem expedient, 
for the erection of suitable buildings and for the purchase of 
apparatus, a library, and a cabinet of natural history. The re- 
gents were required to make a report annually to the legisla- 
ture at its regular session, exhibiting the state and progress of 
the University in its several departments, giving also the 
course of study, the number of professors and students, and 
the amount of expenditures therein; and such other informa- 
tion as they might deem proper. It was expressly declared in 
the act, that no religious tenets or opinions should be required 
to entitle any person to be admitted as a student in the insti- 
tution; and no such tenets or opinions should be required as a 
qualification for any professor, tutor, or teacher; and that no 
student should be, required to attend religious worship in any 
particular denomination. This, in the main, was the organic- 
law of the University of Wisconsin. 

The legislature after passage of the act establishing the Uni- 
versity, and after its approval by the governor, proceeded to 
the election of twelve regents as provided therein. The citizens 



22 SKETCHES OF THE 

chosen were Alexander L. Collins, Edward V. Whiton, John 
H. Rountree, I. T. Clark; Eleazer Root, Simeon Mills, Henrv 
Bryan, Rufus King; Thomas AY. Sutherland, Cyrus Woodman T 
Hiram Barber, John Bannister: the. first four, by the action of 
the board, formed class number one, to hold their office for two 
years; the second four formed class number two, to hold their 
office for four years; the last four formed class number three, 
to hold their office for six years. These gentlemen immediate- 
ly entered upon their duties, deeply impressed with a sense of 
the importance and responsibility of the trust committed to 
their hands. They were required to organize and put in prac- 
tical operation, an institution of learning, for the people of the 
state of Wisconsin, of the rank of a university. This was an 
onerous task. 

No public interest, the regents were fully aware, could 
be of greater magnitude than that of education; intimately 
connected as it is with our social prosperity and happiness, and 
with the perpetuity of our free institutions. While, for the 
promotion of this paramount state interest, liberal provision 
had been made bv the constitution and laws; and while it 
might be reasonably anticipated that the blessings of educa- 
tion would be as widely diifused through the commonwealth 
and as fully enjoyed by the youth therein, as in any other of 
the states; yet, to secure a result so desirable, would, of course, 
require much careful deliberation and the adoption of wise and 
judicious measures. The common schools of Wisconsin had 
yet to be organized into a system in which the University was 
to occupy the highest place to make that system complete.* 
That the organization of these schools would be in accordance 
with the advanced progress of popular education elsewhere, no 
one could doubt. That the University was to be the culmi- 
nating point of instruction provided by the state, awakened a 

*The constitution framed by the convention of 1846 provided the 
basis of a free-school system similar to that in the present constitution of 
the state. It was largely the work of Dr. Henry Barnard, mention of 
whom has previously been made. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 2 

deep interest in its success. From its design, the institution 
would necessarily embrace a wide range of study and a severe 
course of mental discipline. It was felt, therefore, by the 
board that the plan upon which it should be conducted, par- 
ticularly as regarded its several departments of instruction, 
should be well considered. To properly organize these depart- 
ments was an undertaking- fully appreciated by the regents 
as one of no ordinary difficulty. How they proceeded in their 
work, it will be a pleasure hereafter to describe. 

On the sixteenth day of January, 185(5, Daniel Read, LL. D., 
was inaugurated, at Madison, as professor of mental philoso- 
phy, logic, rhetoric and English literature, in the University of 
Wisconsin. In 1881, his chair was changed so as to include 
mental, ethical, and political science, rhetoric and English lit- 
erature. This position he retained until 1800, when he left 
the state. He was born near Marietta, Ohio, June 24, 1805. 
At the age of ten, lie was placed as a pupil in the Cincinnati 
academy and subsequently studied at Xenia academy, Ohio. 
In 1810, he commenced preparation for college, in Athens, in 
that state, graduating at the Ohio university, with the highest 
honors of his class in 1824. He afterward read law for a time, 
but was induced finally to accept the position of preceptor in 
the academy of the institution in Athens where he had gradu- 
ated. Subsequently, he was admitted to the bar, but never 
practiced his profession. He was not only promoted to the 
professorship of political economy and constitutional law in the 
Ohio university, but became vice-president of thai institution. 
In 1840, he was appointed one of the visitors to West Point; 
and, as secretary of the board, he prepared its report for that 
year. In 1843, he was elected professor of ancient languages 
in the Indiana state university, which he accepted, resigning 
for that purpose his professorship at Athens. In 1850, he was 
elected a member of the Indiana constitutional convention. 
In 1856, he came to Wisconsin. Upon the death of Dr. 
Lathrop, in 1866, he was elected president of the university of 
Missouri, at Columbia, holding that position until July 4, 18?(i, 
when he resigned and retired from college life. 



24 SKETCHES OE THE 

For fifty years, Dr. Read had been in commission as a 
university officer; almost constantly engaged, through all that 
time, in the routine of a professor's e very-day work. By hold- 
ing up before his pupils examples of high effort, and by his 
own presence and assistance, he inspired them with enthu- 
siasm in their studies. His punctuality in his duties as 
teacher was only excelled by the preparation made by him 
for the class-room. He taught his pupils how to study, how to 
learn, how to classify their knowledge, and how to use it. His 
vacations were usually employed in visiting colleges, libraries, 
polytechnic institutions, or educational associations, it being 
his especial delight to consult with leading American educa- 
tors. While in Wisconsin, he was recognized as an able 
teacher, as a high-minded citizen, and as active in all matters 
pertaining to educational advancement. He was energetic in 
promoting the interests of the University, exerting himself par- 
ticularly in measures relating to the concentration of funds to 
make it a strong institution. Dr. Read has not only giv- 
en his life to the one single object of education in the west 
and in western state universities, but it has been given with 
a devotedness and singleness of purpose worthy of great praise. 
Although a life-long educator, eminent in his profession, he has 
ever been conservative in his opinions and actions, and in no 
wise a partisan. In the ten years of his administration of the 
affairs of the university of Missouri, he achieved a success 
which finds few parallels in the history of similar institutions in 
the United States. He cared for and looked after its interests, 
its finances, its property, its reputation pt home and abroad, 
its library, its grounds, its departments. Such a man, the cen- 
tral west will long remember with honor. 

Dr. Read has made his appearance as a writer before the pub- 
lic in various ways, in reports, memorials, eulogies, addresses, 
and in other forms of communication. He has written news- 
paper articles almost constantly from youth, oil many topics 
which have interested the states of Ohio, Indiana, and, at a 
later period, Missouri; also, to some extent, of Wisconsin 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 2o 

Matters of education, internal improvement, banking, tariff, 
and questions of constitutional reform, have received his atten- 
tion. His numerous addresses have been delivered before 
various state legislatures, national educational conventions, 
and popular assemblies. They cover a variety of sub- 
jects, "Common School Education," "The Idea of a State 
University," "The Study of Civil Polity," " Military Educa- 
tion," " School Libraries," " Changes and Advances in Public 
Education." Of his published eulogies, may be mentioned 
with especial favor, those on General Andrew Jackson, Stephen 
A. Douglas, and William li. McGuifey. The report of the 
board of visitors to West Point in 1840, written by him the 
same year, and commended in the North American Review for 
January, 1841, is a creditable effort. The one on " The Re- 
organization and Enlargement of the University of the State 
of Missouri," of December 20, 1870, has been extensively re- 
ferred to as one of the most valuable documents en university 
education published in the United States. 

Dr. Read has, in his writings, few marked peculiarities of 
style. His thoughts are seldom commonplace; his language, 
though generallv devoid of ornamentation, is, at times, highly 
ornate. When he has something to say, he says it without 
"fear, favor, or affection." Thus: "The education of your 
children is, next to the salvation of your souls, the greatest 
interest of human life." There is a conciseness, also, frequent- 
ly observable: "To die is the office of the man, simply; the 
conqueror, the statesman, the chieftain, has nothing to do in 
this great and final work." There is in his manner of expres- 
sion what may be called an effective indirection. "I do not 
forget," said he, when retiring from the presidency of the 
university of Missouri, "that among all the religionists of this 
earth, in the ancient, the mediaeval, or the modern world, there 
is not a sect or tribe that worship the seUlny sun; the object 
of worship is the risin-tj sun:" where the "going down " of his 
own labors, because of age, is delicately v-nd regretfully refer- 
red to. It is this sensibility which leads him frequently to 



26 SKETCHES OF THE 

indulge in poetical quotations; as in the following from his 
inaugural address delivered in Madison, upon the occasion of 
his taking his chair in the University of Wisconsin: "No age 
can devise a scheme of education for succeeding ages. It 
is absurd to suppose so. The world changes; it advances in a 
thousand ways; new arts are invented; change is the very 
order of universal nature. 

'The eternal Pan 

Who layeth the world's incessant plan 
Halteth never in one shape. 
But forever doth escape 
Into new forms.' 

Laws, governments, and civilization change. Men must be 
educated for their own age, not for another." But, in observ- 
ing this use, by the writer, of the thoughts of others, it never 
occurs to us that the object is a display of much reading or 
great learning; and such, surely, is very far from Dr. Read's 
intention. It is a deference paid by him to the Happy expres- 
sions of others to great thoughts, found clothed in excellent 
language which leads him to this indulgence. The following 
from his " Education, a Cheap Defence of Nations," will serve 
as an exemplification: 

" It [education] is not only the cheapest, but the best de- 
fense; to a republic, the only sure defense: a defense from 
foes within, as well as from foes without. What are forts and 
arsenals, what are ships of war, compared with the means and 
instrumentalities of knowledge and morality among people? 
When will even popular governments come to act upon the 
principle that it is the people the citizens that constitute 
their strength and greatness? that men virtuous and enlight- 
ened men knowing their rights and duties as men and citi- 
zens, are the only real glory and protection of a republic? 

' What constitutes a state ? 

Not high-raised battlement or labored mound, 
Thick wall or moated gate ; 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 27 

Not cities proud, with spires and turrets crowned ; 
Not bays and broad-armed ports, 

Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride; 
Not starred and spangled courts, 

Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. 
No! Men, high-minded men, 

Men who their duties know, 
But know their rights, and knowing, dare maintain ! t 

These constitute a state!'" 

The board of regents at their annual meeting- in February. 

O O tJ i 

1854, made choice of Stephen Pearl Lathrop, M. D., of Beloit 
college, to fill the chair of chemistry and natural history in the 
University. He entered on his duties early in June. He was 
born in the town of Shelburn, Vermont, September 20, 181G. 
In early life he encountered difficulties arising from the 
straightened circumstances of his parents, such as might have 
kept in obscurity an ordinary mind; but he worked his way 
through every obstacle to the attainment of a liberal educa- 
tion, and was graduated at Middlebury college in his native 
state, in 1339. He entered college, intending to prepare him- 
self for the ministry; but a weakness of the lungs, which soon 
after appeared, compelled an abandonment of his purpose. 
Following a taste for physical science which had been devel- 
oped during his collegiate course, he studied medicine, receiv- 
ing his degree in 1843. He commenced the practice of his 
profession in Middlebury with a prospect of more than ordi- 
nary success; but his attainments and the general cast of his 
mind fitted him peculiarly for the work of instruction; and to 
this he devoted the chief energies of his life. 

In obedience to a call from his Alma Mater, in the spring of 
1845, he temporarily filled the chair of an absent professor in 
anatomy, physiology, and botany in that institution. He was 
also called about the sani3 time to take part as an assistant in 
the geological survey of Vermont. A year later, he undertook 
the charge of the female seminary in Middlebury. In these 
various relation's, he acquired a reputation for sound scientific 



28 SKETCHES OF THE 

attainments, energy of character, and success in imparting- 
knowledge, which induced the trustees of Beloit college, of 
Beloit, Wisconsin, to invite him, in 1849, to the professorship 
of chemistry and natural science, in that institution. He entered 
upon the duties of his office in the fall of that year. 

On his removal to Wisconsin, Prof. Lathrop soon became ex- 
tensively and favorably known, not only as a college teacher 
but as associate editor and publisher of the Wisconsin and 
Iowa Farmer, and as a devoted and successful laborer in the 
department of agricultural science. For the last two years of 
his life, by his connection with that journal, he came into commu- 
nication with the agriculturists of southern and central Wiscon- 
sin and thus guve them the benefit of both his science and his 
experience, for the promotion of their interests. He was en- 
tirely free from the pride of learning, which often keeps the 
educated man from intercourse with the working farmer; 
and his practical good sense fitted him in a peculiar manner to 
be a useful instructor of that class, through the pages of a 
journal devoted to their interests. He did not sever his con- 
nection with the institution at Beloit until called to the state 
University. Here he continued his valuable services in the 
department to which he had been called until disabled by the 
disease which terminated his useful life December 25, 1854, the 
first of the professors of the University to die while in office. 
" In the decease of Professor Lathrop," said the regents, " the 
University lost the service of an able and devoted officer; the 
agricultural interest, a scientific friend; and the state, a useful 
and influential citizen." As an instructor, he was well versed in 
all matters appertaining to his department, enthusiastic in his 
devotion to science, and apt in engaging the interest of his 
pupils. For the study of natural history, in all its branches, he 
had a peculiar fondness. He \vas a close observer. Rocks, 
minerals, shells; the diverse forms of vegetable life; beasts, 
birds, insects; all engaged his attention. 

As a writer, Prof. Lathrop was vigorous but not poetical. 
His thoughts, though frequently effective, were always ex- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 29 

pressed in plain words. The following is from an unpublished 
lecture of his upon chemistry: "It is in the enlarged views 
which science gives that we first learn duly to appreciate the 
Deity. Eternity, infinity, omnipotence, are attributes so as- 
tounding to human faculties, that we can only arrive by steps 
at the most moderate apprehension of them. ' Jacob's ladder 
must stand upon the earth in order to reach heaven.' What 
more worthy employment, then, can man find for his faculties 
than the investigation of these hidden forces that tell in so 
plain a language of the Mighty Power which called them into 
action? Before such knowledge, superstition necessarily fades 
like darkness before the sun." 

In 1808, John B. Feuljng, Ph. D., was called to the chair of 
modern languages and comparative philology, in the Univer- 
sity. He was born in the city of Worms, Germany, February 
12, 1838. Until his tenth year, he was educated at the public- 
school in 'his native city; he then attended the gymnasium, 
from which he graduated in 1857, with a first degree;' after- 
wa.rds entering the university at Giessen to study philology. 
-His studies there were interrupted by being called to serve in 
the army; but he soon returned and passed his public exam- 
ination in I860; from this institution he received the degree 
of doctor of philosophy. He gave private instruction while at 
the university; and after leaving the institution he accepted a 
position in the institute of St. Gowishausen on the Rhine, as 
teacher of Latin and Greek. Later, he spent two years at the 
Bibliotheque Imperiale, in Paris, mainly in the study of phi- 
lology and in acquiring a conversational mastery of the French 
language. 

Dr. Feuling came to the United States in 1805, and not long 
after opened a French and German academy at Toledo, Ohio. 
Not succeeding in this undertaking, he came west, first giving 
instruction at Racine college in the classical languages, and 
then accepting a professorship in the University of Wiscon- 
sin. Shortly after his accession to this professorship, he was 
invited to the chair of ancient languages in the university of 



30 SKETCHES OF THE 

Louisiana, at Baton Rouge, and visited that place on a tour of 
inspection. The position was held open for him one year, 
when he finally declined it, although his preference was for a 
professorship such as had there been tendered him. The posi- 
tion in the University of Wisconsin he continued to fill, with 
much credit, until stricken down by disease, which terminated 
his life March 10, 1878, the second of the professors of the 
University to die at the post of duty. At the time of his 
death, Prof. Feuling was a member of the American Philogi- 
cal Association and of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, 
Arts, and Letters. To both, he had contributed several papers. 
He published, soon after coming to Madison, an edition of the 
Poema Admonitorium of Phocyllides, prefacing the Greek 
text with an introduction in fluent Latin. -He left several 
works in manuscript: "The Homeric Hymns," with notes; 
" Selections from Montesquieu," with notes and a glossary, in- 
tended as a French reading book; and "An Historical Outline 
of Germanic Accidence." He was a profound scholar. Teach- 
ing, with him, was not drudgery. He felt proud of his profes- 
sion, and discharged his duty with a conscientious fidelity.* 

President Boyd, of the university of Lousiana, writes: " I 
consider the loss of Dr. Feuling to be a national calamity. 
The announcement of his death brings sorrow here in the far 
south as in the northwest. Wherever he was known, (and 
scholars and men of intelligence all over this country knew 
him), there is a profound regret that the accomplished linguist 
and courteous gentleman is no more." Prof. Whitney of Yale 
college says of him: " I lament his death, regarding it as a 
painful and serious loss to philogical science in America. I 
held for him a high respect and warm personal affection." 

Dr. Feuling has lectured before various colleges and educa- 
tional associations. His pamphlet on the " Etymology of the 
Word Church," attracted the attention of eastern linguists. 
Prof. Schele de Vere, of the university of Virginia, writes of 

* Adapted largely from a sketch of Dr. Feuling, written by Dr. S. H. 
Carpenter, for the UNIVERSITY PRESS of March 20, 1878. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 31 

it: " I have been reading it again with appreciation of the dis- 
tinction the author had won for himself and the University of 
which he was so bright an ornament." 

Dr. Feuling's last address, " The Rhyme in Latin and 
Greek," was read by him before the philogical convention 
at the Johns Hopkins university, in Baltimore, 1877. He was 
a frequent contributor to leading periodicals of this country, 
and had 'been for some years associate editor of a literary jour- 
nal published in his native city. From these columns is 
selected the following which shows that, in his literary tastes, 
poetry was an essential element, and that he cultivated the 
field with marked success: 

FATA MORGANA. 

Icli trat mit seligem Vertraueu 

Umspielt von golclenem Sonnenschein 

Zu meiner Kindheit sonnig blauen, 
Und nie umwoelkten Himmel ein. 

Es delmten sich nur gruene Matten 
Vor meinem trunkenem Blicke aus, 

Und stilleMyrten botsn. shatteu 
1m dunkein gruenem Blaetterliaus. 

Die Welt war von dem Morgenlichte 
Der ersten Menschlichheit umstrahlt 

Wie alte Saenger im Gedichte, 
Verschwund'ne Zeiten emst gemalt. 

Das Glueck bot mir in Silberschale 

Den gold'uen Wein der Seligkeit, 
Es waren Plato's Ideale 

Gestalten schoener "Wirklichkeit. 

Doch ach ! es waren Truggebilde 

Wie sie die Wuestensee oft malt ; 
Die Sahara wird kein Gefilde, 

Der eis'ge Nord bleibt ewig kalt ! 

[TRANSLATION.] 

My childhood's holy faith obeying, 
I trod the way with glad surprise, 



32 SKETCHES OF THE 

Its golden sunshine o'er me straying- 
I looked on blue, unclouded skies. 

I saw an ever-blooming meadow 
Alluring my enraptured mood, 
And far away in quiet shadow 
. . A leaf-green summer solitude. 

" The world lay in the Eden glory 

That first humanity o'er cast, 
As told in sacred song and story, 

By poet-singers of the past. 

The wine of blessedness unbroken 
Life proffered from her golden stream, 

And there were they, in smiling token, 
The real forms of Plato's dream. - 

"Ah happy childhood's rainbow vision! 

1 see no more thy hills of gold ; 
The desert hides thy fields elysian, 

The north wind murmurs ever cold. 

The following is a translation from another of his poetical 
efforts: 

HEINE'S GRAVE. 

I know a grave in foreign lands 
Within a church yard's sacred keeping. 
To tell of one in silence sleeping 

A marble cross above it stands. 

The cross turns eastward to the sun 
It points away to youth's glad story, 
Its dream of love, its dream of glory, 

To heights the singer's heart had won. 

It. dreams of German Fatherland, 

The Brotherhood in loyal union, 

And reaches out as in communion 
With those who mourn a broken band. 
So, oft, as the young day appears, 

He sees the cross with tear-drops beaming, 

For Night has paused in tender seeming. 
And o'er the sleeper bowed in tears. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 33 

Dr. Feuling was a member of the American Oriental Society, 
and was invited to address its members, but the invitation 
came too late. According to his expressed wish, he was buried 
in Forest Hill cemetery, near Madison, Wisconsin, within sight 
of the city he loved so well, and of the University, the scene of 
the labors of his active life. 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER IV. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE UNIVERSITY DR. EZRA S. CARR PROF. 

CHARLES H. ALLEN. 

The regents of the University of Wisconsin held their first 
meeting at Madison, October 7, 1848. They met again on the 
sixteenth of January, 1849. At these meetings, with a lively 
sense of the importance of the public interest intrusted to 
their care, with an abiding desire to render their administra- 
tion of the trust productive of general and lasting benefit to the 
people of the state,and in accordance with what they believed to 
be a judicious policy, they proceeded, as (jreliminary to a full 
organization of the institution, to the selection of a site for the 
location of the University; to the establishment of a prepara- 
tory school in the department of science, literature, and the 
arts; to the election of a chancellor; and to the adoption of 
incipient measures for the formation of a cabinet of natural 
history. 

Among the many locations " at or near the village of Madi- 
son, in the county of Dane," suggested as a site for the Uni- 
versity, the regents determined that the one known as "college 
hill" was the most suitable, situated one mile west of the 
capitol and sufficiently elevated to overlook " the village," the 
four lakes, and a wide extent of surrounding country. The 
wisdom of this selection no one has ever since questioned. It 
is doubtful whether, all tilings considered, a lovelier spot for 
an institution of the kind can be found in the United States. 
A proposition from the owner, Aaron Vanderpool, to dispose 
of one hundred and fifty-seven and one-half acres, for fifteen 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 35 

dollars an acre, adding a small sum thereto to cover taxes and 
agent's fees, was accepted by the regents, subject to the ap- 
proval of the legislature. The land thus selected was the 
north-west quarter of section twenty-three, in township seven 
north of range nine east, of the government survey, excepting 
therefrom a small portion which had been laid off as one of 
the blocks of Madison. The regents asked of the legislature 
one thousand dollars to defray contingent expenses and to 
cover the first payment on the land the money to be repaid 
from the income of the University fund whenever the amount 
should be realized. 

The establishing of a preparatory school in the department 
of science, literature, and the arts, was deemed by the regents 
to be in accordance with the usage of similar institutions else- 
where, it being especially necessary in connection with the 
University of Wisconsin from the consideration that there 
were, at that date, very few academic institutions in the state 
where proper instruction could be obtained to qualify students 
to enter the regular classes. The citizens of Madison gener- 
ously tendered the use of a building for the school free of rent, 
which was accepted by the regents. The tuition fee was fixed 
at twenty dollars a scholar for the year. This, it was believed, 
would be amply sufficient to defray the expense of instruction 
in the school. The regents limited their liability, in that con- 
nection, to five hundred dollars per annum. The course of 
study was to include English grammar, arithmetic, ancient and 
modern geography, elements of history, algebra, Cresar's com- 
mentaries, ^Eneid of Virgil (six books), Sallust, select orations 
of Cicero, Greek lessons, Anabasis of Xenophon, antiquities 
of Greece and Rome, exercises in penmanship, reading, com- 
position, and declamation. Instruction was also to be given, 
to all who might desire it, in book-keeping and in the elements 
of geometry and surveying. On Monday, the fifth day of Feb- 
ruary, 1849, the school was opened, under charge of John "W. 
Sterling, A. M., who had been elected professor of mathemat- 
ics by the regents at their meeting October 7, 1848. His 



36 ' SKETCHES OF THE 

salary was fixed at five hundred dollars per annum. The 
first year, consisting of two terms of twenty weeks each, 
ended on the twenty-fourth of January, 1850. There were 
in attendance during the first term, Levi Booth, Byron E. Bush- 
nell, Charles Fairchild, William H. Holt, Daniel G. Jewitt, 
Charles D. Knapp, Frances Ogden, Robert Ream, Robert D. 
Rood, Charles B. Smith, Hayden K. Smith, George W. Stoner, . 
Richard F. Wilson, and Albert U. Wyman, from Madison; 
James M. Flowers from Sun Prairie; Henry McKee and 
Stewart McKee from Platteville; Wm. Stewart from Ancaster, 
Canada West; Charles T. Wakeley from Whitewater; and 
William A. Locke from Lake Mills. There were enrolled the 
second term all those who had attended during the first term, ex- 
cept Henry McKee; with the addition, also, of Horace Rublee, 
of Sheboygan; Jesse S. Ogden, Theodore Holt, Jasper T. Hawes, 
and John H. Lathrop, Jr., of Madison; Xoah H. Drew, of 
Prairie du Sac; George M. Pinney, of Medina; and James H. 
Sutherland, of Greenfield. 

A third preliminary step that of the election of chancellor, 
was a duty devolving upon the regents under the organic law 
of the University. It was deemed expedient by them to fill 
the office at the commencement 01 their operations, that they 
might have the benefit of his advice in all matters appertain- 
ing to the institution over which he was to preside, and in the 
success of which he would necessarily feel, from his position, 
a greater than ordinary share of interest and responsibility; the 
act under which the University was to be organized evidently 
contemplating this in making him, by virtue of his office of 
chancellor, the president of the board. Influenced by a de- 
sire to place at the head of the institution a man not only 
qualified, by his experience, scholarship, and character, to 
preside with dignity and efficiency over the University, and 
promote all its interests by wise counsels, but one able also to 
impress the popular mind of Wisconsin with the paramount 
importance of the great subject of education the regents 
unanimously made choice at their first meeting of John H. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 37 

Lathrop, of whom mention has previously been made. The 
maximum of /his salary was to be two thousand dollars per 
annum, which was, under the law, submitted to the legislature 
for their approval. He did not assume the presidency of the 
board until November 21, 1849. 

The regents, as a fourth preliminary step toward the organ- 
i/ation of the University, deemed it expedient to begin a col- 
lection of geological and mineralogical specimens, also of nat- 
ural and artificial curiosities, for a cabinet of natural history. 
The importance of the object was conceded; and because of a 
proposition made by H. A. Tenny, of Madison, who offered to 
act free of charge as agent in collecting specimens (Mr. Tenny 
having previously made considerable progress in that direc- 
tion), it was considered that the prosecution of the matter 
would be-ably attended to and with trifling expense, by ap- 
pointing him to act in that capacity. His exertions svere soon 
rewarded with over one hundred specimens of rocks, ores, fos- 
sils, and curiosities; also with a considerable number of shells. 
It was to this beginning that the cabinet of the University 
owes its origin. The efforts of Mr. Tenney did not cease with 
these accumulations. His labors " without reward or hope 
thereof" were long continued, and were as successful as they 
were generous. 

The regents also proposed the erection of a building at an 
estimated cost of three thousand five hundred dollars, to be 
used ultimately by the department of the theory and practice 
of elementary instruction, submitting a plan of the edifice to 
the legislature for their approval, the building to be erected on 
the site which it was proposed to purchase of Mr. Vanderpool. 
The board of regents made their first annual report to the 
legislature in January, 1849. The legislature by a joint res- 
olution approved February 2, 1849, confirmed the action of 
the regents as to the salary of the chancellor and professor 
of mathematics; also as to the site selected for the Univer- 
sity and plan of the building to be erected thereon. 

An act supplementary to the organic law of the University; 



38 SKETCHES OF THE 

approved August 21, 1848, provided that, when a vacancy in 
the office of regent should occur from any cause, it should be 
the duty of the governor to fill the same by appointment. 
Edward Y. Whiton having resigned, and Thomas W.Suther- 
land removed out of the state, A. H. Smith was commissioned, 
August 4, 1849, as the successor of the former, and Nathaniel 
W. Dean, June 13, of the same year, to fill the place of the 
latter. 

The third meeting of the board of regents was a special one 
and was held November 21, 1849, when the first steps were 
taken toward opening two of the departments of the Univer- 
sity as provided for in the organic act the department of 
science, literature, and the arts, and that of the theory and 
practice of elementary instruction. There was established, in 
the first mentioned department, a professorship of ethics, civil 
polity, and political economy; one of mental philosophy, logic, 
rhetoric, and English literature; a third, of ancient languages 
and literature; a fourth, of modern languages and literature; 
a fifth, of mathematics, natural philosophy, and astronomy; 
and a sixth, of chemistry and natural history. There was also 
established, for the other department, a normal professorship. 
The salary of each professor was fixed at a maximum of one 
thousand dollars per annum. 

It was resolved by the regents, at this meeting, that the in- 
auguration of the chancellor elect should take place on the 
sixteenth of January, 1850, at the capitol in Madison. On 
that day, the legislature having adjourned over in honor of the 
occasion, and the supreme court, the state medical society, and 
a railroad convention, having each intermitted its session for 
the purpose of attending the exercises, there was no rival at- 
traction to divert the attention of citizens from the event. 
John H. Rountree presided at the meeting. A stirring address 
was delivered on behalf of the regents by A. H. Smith, one of 
their number, followed by an able inaugural effort by Chancel- 
lor Lathrop; and the University of Wisconsin was ushered in- 
to existence. * 

*Tlie University years are numbered successively from the year 1850; 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 39 

The chair of chemistry and natural history, made vacant by 
the death of Prof. S. P. Lathrop, was, in 1855, filled by the 
election of Ezra S. Carr, M. D., who entered upon the duties 
of his professorship, in January, 1856. He was born in Ste- 
phentown, Rensselaer county, New York, March 9, 1819. He 
graduated first at the Rensselaer polytechnic school, in Troy, 
and- was then appointed by the governor of the state William 
H. Seward an assistant in the geological survey of New 
York. When not engaged in the field, he continued his scien- 
tific and medical studies at Albany. The degree of doctor of 
medicine was conferred upon him by the Castleton medical col- 
lege, Vermont, in which institution he was appointed to the 
chair of chemistry and natural history, in 1842 a position 
held by him a number of years. From 1846 to 1850, he lect- 
ured alternately in the Castleton and Philadelphia medical col- 
leges, giving two courses annually in each of those institu- 
tions. His home being in Vermont, he was active in the af- 
fairs of that state. In 1846, he was elected president of the 
state temperance society and appointed a delegate to the 
world's temperance convention held in London during that 
year. He was an officer of the state educational society, and 
prominent in efforts to provide the southern and western states 
with competent teachers. Elected to the state legislature, he 
advocated a geological survey and more liberal provisions for 
public education. 

In 1853, the regents of the University of Wisconsin elected 
Dr. Carr-temporarily to the chair of chemistry and natural his- 
tory, which he declined, he being soon after called to the pro- 
fessorship of chemistry and pharmacy in the University of Al- 
bany. Subsequently, he was appointed chemist to the New 
York state agricultural society. He afterward delivered a se- 
ries of lectures on practical subjects to the working men of 

for example, that of 1877-8, ending June 19, 1878, is reckoned the 
twenty-eighth. The day of the inauguration of Chancellor Lathrop 
the sixteenth of January is properly considered the birth-day of the 
institution. 



Albany. In 1854, he was invited to the profe:sorship of chem- 
istry and natural history in the University of Vermont but de- 
clined the offer, he having- engagements to teach those sciences 
in the state normal school at Albany, and to give summer 
courses of lectures in Middlebury college, Vermont. Dr. Carr 
came to Madison early in 1856, and was connected with the 
University of Wisconsin as professor of chemistry and natural 
history for twelve years. He was one of the commissioners of 
the state geological survey and became a regent of the Uni- 
versity in 1857, serving two years. He was elected a member 
of the Wisconsin state medical society in 1856, and was its 
president for one term; also acting professor of chemistry in 
the Rush medical college, Chicago, for three years. He re- 
signed his chair in the University in 1868 and "removed to Cali- 
fornia, where new fields of labor opened to him. In 1869, he 
Avas occupying the chairs of agriculture in the newly organized 
University of that state and of medical chemistry in the To- 
la nd medical college in San Francisco. His connection with 
the University terminated at the end of six years' service, when 
he was elected state superintendent of public instruction of 
California, which office he still holds. 

Dr. Carr is the author of many published papers upon medi- 
cal, agricultural, scientific, and other subjects, among which 
may be mentioned the "Genesis of Crime," "Claims and Con- 
ditions of Industrial Education," and " Child Culture." A 
volume upon agriculture and kindred subjects, entitled " Pa- 
trons of Husbandry," has received warm encomiums from the 
press of the United States and England. Prof. Carr's style in 
writing is characterized as easy-flowing, free from angularities 
or pompousness. The following extract from his eulogy on 
Dr. .1. W. Hunt, delivered December 20, 1859, published by the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, pretty fairly exhibits 
his usual style: "If any thing can quiet the pulses of busy- 
life in which most of us are absorbed, it is when funeral bells 
solemnly toll out the lessons of man's mortality, the brevity of 
his career, the equality of all in suffering and death. To-day 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 41 

all is brightness; hope invites activity; the heart beats high 
with expectation; and the brain labors for the accomplishment 
of great purposes: to morrow, both are dust. The present 
seems our only possession, so dim are our recollections of 'that 
immortal sea which brought us hither,' so faint and fugitive 
our conceptions of the mysterious river over which myriads pass 
and none return, 

' Oh, none return from those quiet shores 

Who cross with the boatman cold and pale; 

We hear the dip of the golden oars, 

We catch the gleam of the snowy sail, 

And, loJ they have passed from our yearning sight 

They cross the stream, and are gone for aye ; 

We may not sunder the veil apart 

That hides from our vision the gates of day,' " 

During the spring term of 1863, a normal department was 
opened in the University under charge of Charles H. Allen, 
who, at the time of his election, was acting as the general agent 
of the board of normal regents of Wisconsin. The normal de- 
partment was continued until 1869, when it was enlarged into 
a ladies' college. Prof. Allen resigned his position in January, 
1865, to take effect at the end of the University year, but filled 
the chair temporarily during the fall term. His labors had 
been successful and his resignation was a matter of regret, gen- 
erally. He was born in Mansfield, Tioga county, Pennsylva- 
nia, February 11, 1828, but spent his youth in Hampshire coun- 
ty, Massachusetts, where until the age of fifteen he received 
the benefits of a common school education. He was afterward 
engaged in surveying, in teaching common and normal schools, 
and in holding teachers' institutes. He came to Wisconsin to 
hold a series of teachers' institutes which had been organized 
by Dr. Barnard. Fulfilling successfully the engagement, he 
was permanently employed in the same work and in that of ex- 
amining the normal classes in the several institutions of the 
state. Upon the resignation of Dr. Barnard as chancellor of 
the University of Wisconsin, Mr. Allen continued his work as 



agent of the normal board until called to the normal depart- 
ment in that institution, he having conducted, in 1862, a private 
normal and high school in Madison. During his summer va- 
cation in 1863, he served his country, as captain in the Fortieth 
Wisconsin regiment hundred days volunteers. 

Prof. Allen, after resigning his position in the University 7 
engaged for a brief time in private business. In 1866, he was 
called to take charge of the first normal school in Wisconsin, 
opened at Platteville October 9, which position he held for 
four years, resigning in 1870 on account of ill health. He 
then went to Oregon where he opened and organized the 
Bishop Scott grammar school as head master. His health 
improving, he returned to Wisconsin and accepted the posi- 
tion of institute agent for the regents of the -normal schools. 
From that position he was called in 1873 to a professorship in 
the state normal school of California, located at San Jose. Af- 
ter filling the position a few months, he was made principal of 
the school, which position he still holds. As an institute con- 
ductor and as principal of normal schools, Prof. Allen has 
been, and is, eminently successful. 



UNIVEBSITY OF WISCONSIN. 



CHAPTER V. 

ORGANIZATION OF UNI VARSITY CLASSES THE UNIVERSITY SITE 

OCCUPIED SELECTION AND APPRAISAL OF UNIVERSITY LANDS 

DR. J. H. TWOAIBLY. 

On the fourth day of August, 1850, the first university class 
was organized; but this step was only constructively taken; 
freshman studies having been assigned to two students of the 
preparatory school Levi M. Booth and Charles T. Wakeley. 
These studies were pursued by them during the first 
university year ending July 10, 1851; but there was 
no setting apart .of a distinct freshman class until 
"the commencement of the next university year, on 
the seventeenth of September, 1851, when a sophomore class 
was also formed with Levi M. Booth, John H. Lathrop, Jr., and 
Charles. T. Wakeley as members. The faculty for the first 
university year consisted of John H. Lathrop, LL. D., chan- 
cellor and professor of ethics, civil polity, and political 
economy; John "W. Sterling, A. M., professor of mathematics, 
natural philosophy, and astronomy; and O. M. Conover, A. M., 
tutor the last mentioned having been employed only during a 
portion of the second term. For the second university year 
terminating July 28, 1852, the faculty was unchanged. It was 
the same for the third university year commencing September 
14, 185-2, and ending on the twenty-seventh of July, 1853, with 
the addition of O. M. Conover as professor of ancient lan- 
guages and literature, while the place of the latter as tutor was 
filled by Stephen H. Carpenter, A. B. This year began with 
the organization of a junior class (in addition to the two 



44 SKETCHES OF THE 

classes previously termed), with three members Levi M. 
Booth, Charles T. Wakeley, and John H. Lathrop, Jr., the last 
mentioned leaving before the close of the last term. 

The legislature of Wisconsin having confirmed the action of 
the regents in the selection of a site for the University early 
in February, 1849, the board soon thereafter proceeded not 
only to perfect their title to the Vanderpool tract but to make 
some additional purchases. Since that time, portions have 
been sold oif while other parcels have been bought, until now 
the grounds immediately connected with the institution con- 
stitute nearly a square plat having streets and an avenue of 
the city bounding it on the east and south, and on a part of 
the west side; while the entire north shore is washed by Lake 
Mendota, the largest of the lakes which add so much to the 
beauty of Madison and its vicinity.* 

In the second annual report of the regents to the legislature, 
made on the sixteenth of January, 1850, they asked of that 
body authority to borrow from the principal of the school fund, 
the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars to enable them to 
proceed to the erection of needful structures for the university. 
The policy of the proposed loan was placed in a strong light 
by the governor of the state Nelson Dewey in his annual 
message in January of that year. The result was the passage 
of an act approved February 9, following, authorizing the 
commissioners of school and university lands to loan to the in- 
stitution an amount not exceeding the sum asked for by the 
regents, to be applied to the construction of university build- 
ings, to the payment of liabilities incurred in the purchase of 
lands for the institution, and to such other purposes as might 

*These grounds include the site of all the buildings except the presi- 
dent's house and the observatory ; but the University farm, of which 
mention will hereafter be made, and upon which the two structures last 
mentioned are erected, lies to the westward. To be more specific, the 
University grounds may be described as bounded on the north by Lake 
Mendota, on the east by Park street, on the south by University avenue, 
and on the west by Mary street and an imaginary line continuing that 
street north, to the lake aforesaid. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 45 

be necessary to the advancement of the interest of the Univer- 
sity. 

The recommendation of the regents for a temporary struct- 
ure estimated to cost three thousand five hundred dollars to be 
used ultimately by the department of the theory and practice 
of elementary instruction, which had been approved by the 
legislature, was not carried into effect by the board. In lieu 
thereof at a meeting of the regents on the fifteenth of January, 
1850, a general plan and estimates for university buildings and 
other improvements of the site, to cost nearly seventy thousand 
dollars, were adopted, subject to the approval of the legisla- 
ture. The plan for the buildings included a main edifice front- 
ing the capitol in the city, to contain rooms for recitations, lec- 
tures, and for other purposes, also two dwelling houses for 
officers of the institution, and four dormitory buildings. The 
legislature having by the act approved February 9, 1850, vir- 
tually ratified the action of the regents as to the buildings to 
be erected for the University, and furnished means sufficient 
for present use, the board proceeded to contract for one that 
now known as the north dormitory, which was so nearly finished 
on the first day of the second university year September 17, 
1851, that it was opened for occupation by the students. This 
day is still remembered as the time when the school " moved 
on the hill." The building, however, was not actually com- 
pleted and accepted by the regents until the eleventh of Octo 
ber thereafter. The entire cost of the structure was about 
nineteen thousand dollars. In an architectural point of view, 
the building does not present many attractive features. 

The board of regents made their second annual report to the 
legislature on the sixteenth of January, 1850; but, by an act 
approved the twenty-fourth of that month relative to annual 
reports of state officers and others, it was made the duty of the 
regents instead of reporting thereafter to the legislature, to 
send their communications to the governor; hence, it was, that 
the third annual report of the board January 1, 1857 was 
made to the chief executive of the state. 



4 . SKETCHES OF THE 

The subject of founding a library for the University early 
occupied the attention of the regents; but, from lack of means, 
no direct action was taken until 1850, when a proposition was 
made to connect, temporarily, any collection of books that 
might be made, with that of the cabinet; and at a special meet- 
ing of the board on the twenty-fifth of July, of that year, the 
appointment of librarian was tendered to H. A. Tenney, who 
had through the year previous continued to act in the capacity 
of curator of the cabinet. By the commencement of the year 
1851, nearly eight hundred volumes had been obtained the 
beginning of the present valuable library of the institution. 
The name of United States senator, Henry Dodge, must be 
mentioned in this .connection, as among the first who made a 
generous donation of books. 

On the thirtieth of October, 1850, Cyrus Woodman having 
resigned his office of regent, E. B. Wolcott was appointed by 
the governor to fill the vacancy. On the twenty-sixth of Febru- 
ary, 1851, the legislature elected in place of regents Collins, 
Clark, and Rouiitree, Alonzo Wing, Godfrey Aigner, and 
James D. Ruggles; at the same time regent Smith, who had 
previously been appointed by the governor, was elected for a' 
full term. Henry Bryan having afterward resigned, John H. 
Rountree, a former regent, was appointed by the governor to 
fill his place, on the fourteenth of March, 1851; so that the 
board was then constituted as follows: regents Root, Mills, 
Rountree and King, for two years; Dean, Wolcott, Barber, 
and Bannister, for four years; Smith, Wing, Aigner, and Rug- 
gles, for six years. The names of these gentlemen, together 
with the chancellor's, were, therefore, appended to the fourth 
annual report of the board, made to the governor for the year 
ending December 31, 1851. In this communication the regents 
say that, " in the discharge of the duties of the trust commit- 
ted to their administration and supervision during the year 
1851, the board have seen no reason to vary their views, as ex- 
pressed in their previous reports to the .legislature, relative to 
the plan of building, or the general organization of the iiisti- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 47 

tution. The collegiate department [that of science, literature, 
and the arts], with its buildings, its faculty, its library, appa- 
ratus, arid collections in natural science, and all the subordinate 
arrangements essential to a liberal under-graduate course of 
-study, constitute the central idea of the University, and the 
leading; object of the trust." 

Up to the close of the year 1851, the finances of the Univer- 
sity present some features of historical interest. University 
lands had been sold to the amount of about twenty-five thous- 
and dollars, the interest of which was set apart to meet the in- 
terest on the loan of the same amount made from the school 
fund. The property of the institution consisted of the site 
then containing fifty acres, the north dormitory, the founda- 
tion of the south dormitory which had already been laid, and 
the unsold University lands. Debts due the board, and its 
property in city lots, were reckoned sufficient to extinguish all 
the private indebtedness of the institution. The whole reve- 
nue available to meet current expenses was, therefore, at that 
date, derived from tuition fees and room rents. The number of 
students in attendance was forty-four. 

Much of the time and attention of the faculty was occupied 
in fitting the students for admission into the University classes. 
" This provision for preparatory instruction in the University," 
said the chancellor, '" must be continued until the academic 
or union schools, one in each township,' embraced in the plan 
of public instruction for the state, shall be put into successful 
operation." " The sophomore and freshman classes already 
formed," continues the chancellor, " several classes of prepar- 
atory students, together with those who are now pursuing se- 
lect portions of the course, furnish full occupation for the 
faculty, now [close of 1851] consisting of the chancellor, the 
professor of mathematics, and a tutor." 

While the act of congress of June 12, 1838, donating to the 
territory of Wisconsin for the use of the University, two town- 
ships of land, authorized the secretary of the treasury of the 
United States to " set apart and reserve from sale " this gift 



48 . SKETCHES OF THE 

of forty-six thousand and eighty acres; yet it was manifestly 
the intention of the law-makers that these lands should be first 
selected by competent persons appointed by the legislature of 
the territory; and when so selected a description of them should 
be sent the secretary of the treasury, to the end that they 
might be reserved from sale at the different land offices. Hence 
it was that by a joint resolution of February 11, 1840, the 
legislature of the territory authorized the governor to appoint 
one competent person in each land district that of Milwaukee, 
Green Bay, and Wisconsin (Mineral Point), then constitu- 
ting the three in the territory to locate a portion, not exceed- 
ing two-thirds of these lands. These persons were to report 
to the governor the result of their labors. The executive was 
directed to request the secretary of the treasury of the United 
States to reserve from sale the lands so locate'd. During the 
year 1840, the commissioners performed their duties selecting 
in the three districts a fraction over thirty thousand seven hun- 
dred and forty-eight acres; but the amount set apart in the Min- 
eral Point land district, although twice selected was, in the end, 
not approved by the secretary of the treasury. The whole 
number of acres in the other two districts withheld from sale 
or entry because of their having been so selected, was a frac- 
tion over twenty thousand four hundred and ninety-seven, 
leaving yet to be set apart as late as the third of February, 
1840, a fraction over twenty-five thousand five hundred and 
eighty-two acres, when, under authority of an act approved 
that day, provisions were made for selecting the residue of the 
seventy-two sections; which labor was afterward accomplished 
and approved by the secretary of the treasury of the United 
States. But selecting University lands proved an easy task 
compared with their appraisal and sale. These perplexities 
were reserved for Wisconsin after becoming a state. 

As the lands granted to the state were " for the use and sup- 
port of an university " and " for no other use or purpose what- 
ever," it was . the plain import of the law that they were not 
given to become the property of the territory of Wisconsin, 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 4-9 

and afterward of the state, absolutely, but only in trust and 
for a specific object; for it would evidently be within the 
power of congress even after such lands were set apart as uni- 
versity lands and appraised, if they were being sold and the 
proceeds thereof diverted to other purposes, to revoke the gift. 
And again. The lands donated were not " for " a university 
unqualifiedly, but for the u support " of one; not for creating 
but for endowing it; and the trainers of the state constitution evi- 
dently so construed the gift; for that instrument declares (Art. 
10, Sec. 6), that " the proceeds of all lands that have been or 
may hereafter be granted by the United States to the state for 
the support of a university, shall be and remain a perpetual 
fund, to be called the ; university fund,' the interest of which 
.shall be appropriated to the support of the state university/' 
Manifestly, then, the legislature, in authorizing the regents, in 
the organic act, to expend such portion of the income of the 
University fund as they might deem expedient for the erection 
of suitable buildings and for other purposes, was not acting up to 
either the letter or spirit of the constitution. As trustee of the 
university lands, the state would, it is true, properly become 
the trustee of the fund arising from their sale, but, rightfully, 
only to use it for the purpose intended bv the general govern- 
ment, in making the gift. The proper action of the legislature 
would have been to pass a law appropriating a sufficient 
amount to purchase a site for the University, and to erect ap- 
propriate buildings thereon; in short, to create the institution; 
and then, as trustee, to make as effective as possible its en- 
dowment. How for many years the state abused its trustee- 
ship but in the end, happily, began a fair restitution " as a final 
and satisfactory adjustment of the principal questions relating 
to such trust," will hereafter be shown. 

An act providing for the appraisal and subdivision of uni- 
versity lands approved August 12, 1848, authorized the ap- 
pointment of three persons in each county as appraisers. It 
was their duty under instructions from the secretory of state to 
describe the quality and general advantages of the different 



50 SKETCHES OF THE 

tracts, and to appraise them at a fair valuation, without refer- 
ence' to any improvements made thereon, but giving due con- 
sideration to other circumstances enhancing their value. Im- 
provements were to be made a matter of separate appraisal. 
Under this law there was soon appraised sixty-three sections., 
at an average value of two dollars and seventy-eight cents an 
acre, ranging from one dollar and thirteen cents in Green 
county to seven dollars and six cents in Washington county. 
But the appraisers were confronted with difficulties which the 
act contemplated would be met with by them claims under 
the pre-emption law; for it had been provided that they should 
return a particular description of all improvements made by 
any occupant or claimant " with an estimate of the value of 
such improvements; the name of the person or persons claim- 
ing the same, and the circumstances under which they were 
made." Following this was the revised statutes of 1849 (pp. 
210226) as to the sale and superintendence of these lands, 
as to the investment of the funds arising therefrom, and as to 
the powers and duties of commissioners thereof; the object 
of the appraisement having been to enable the legislature to 
fix the lowest price at which they were to be disposed of. 

At the annual meeting of the regents in June, 1871, John 
H. Twombly, D. D., was elected to the presidency of the Uni- 
versity, being called, at the same time, to fill the chair of 
mental and moral philosophy. Dr. Twomblv severed his con- 
nection with the institution by resigning, on the twentieth of 
January, 1874. He was born in Rochester, New Hampshire, 
his boyhood and youth being passed, at the home of his father, 
in agricultural labor, and in attending the public schools. 
Subsequently, he spent about three years as carpenter and 
builder. In the year 1836, he entered the classical school 
at Newbury, Vermont, to prepare for college. His freshman 
year was spent at Dartmouth college, New Hampshire, and, in 
1 840, he was honorably dismissed. He went thence to the Wes- 
ieyan university at Middletown, Connecticut, where he grad- 
uated in 1843. In the previous winter, he taught in Amenia sen- 



UNIVEKSITY OP WISCONSIN, 51 

inary, Arnenia, New York; and after leaving the university, he 
was engaged as teacher for three years in the Wesleyan acad- 
emy at Wilbraham, Massachusetts. In 18*4, he joined the 
New England conference of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
but that year and the following one, he was assigned as teacher 
in the academy just mentioned. In November, 1844, he was 
married to Miss Betsey Dow, daughter of Rev. J. G. Dow, of 
Montpelier, Vermont. In 1846, he entered actively into the 
work of the ministry, holding the pastoral relation till 1866. 
During these years he had charge, most of the time, of large 
congregations in the chief cities of Massachusetts. 

Immediately after it was known that Dr. Twombly had 
resigned his position as president of the University of Wis- 
consin, he was offered the pastorate of an influential church in 
Columbus,' Ohio, and an unanimous call was extended to him 
by the Westfield (Massachusetts) church, one of the strongest 
Methodist churches in New England, and of which he had been 
pastor in the early days of his ministry. He accepted the last 
mentioned invitation. In 1877, he was appointed pastor of a 
church in Springfield, Massachusetts, and his continuance in 
that relation was unanimously desired by the society, but hav- 
ing an urgent call from the Broadway Methodist church, of Bos- 
ton, he accepted, and is now in his fifth pastorate in that city. 

In 1855, Dr. Twombly was chaplain of the Massachusetts 
house of representatives. From 1857 to 1871, he was, with 
the exception of two years, secretary of the New England 
Education Society. In I860, and in 1864, he was a delegate 
to the general conference of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
In 1868, and in the year following, he was one of the directors 
of the American institute. He took an active, and in some 
respects, a leading part, in the year 1868 and 1869, in estab- 
lishing the Boston university. He was chairman of the com- 
mittee to obtain the charter for that institution; has been a 
member of its board of trustees since its organization; and is 
now chairman of the standing committee on the college of 
liberal arts. 



52 SKETCHES OF THE 

Dr. Twombly, during- most of the time from his leaving- the 
Wesleyan academy till he accepted the presidency of the 
University of Wisconsin, was connected with public schools or 
prominent educational institutions, and in that period received 
numerous calls to honorable educational positions. He was a 
member of the school boards of the cities of Worcester, Lynn, 
and Chelsea, and president of the last mentioned. From 1866 
to 1870, he was superintendent of the public schools in the 
city of Charlestown; and, from 1855 to 1867, a member of the 
board of overseers of Harvard college. He was officially 
called to the principalship of the East Greenwich academy, in 
Rhode Island; to the principalship of the New Hampshire 
conference seminary, Northfield, New Hampshire; to the chair 
of mathematics in the Northwestern university, at Evanston, 
Illinois; and to the presidency of Cornell college, Iowa. All 
these he declined. 

In March, 1874, while on his way from Madison, Wisconsin, 
to the eastern states, Dr. Twombly visited Knoxville, Tennes- 
see, by request of gentlemen of that city, and was unani- 
mously elected to the presidency of the Knoxville university, 
an institution designed to embrace the university at Athens, 
Tennessee, and several preparatory schools; but this offer 
was also declined. In 1846, he received from his alma mater 
the degree of master of arts, and, in 1871, that of doctor of 
divinity. 

Dr. Twombly has made free use of his pen, as a preacher, 
almost invariably writing his sermons. He has written lectures, 
educational reports, and some for newspapers, but has pub- 
lished no books. In 1858-9, the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation of Boston requested the leading clergymen of the 
different denominations to deliver sermons on the young men 
of the Bible. From one of these published discourses, by Dr. 
Twombly, on Timothy, the following is selected as indicative of 
his style: "The veil which hides from our view much of the 
career of the chief of the apostles, largely conceals the active 
life of Timothy. But, as at night the parting clouds reveal 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 53 

the beauties of the star-lit heavens, so occasionally this veil is 
turned aside from the life of Timothy, and we catch a glance 
at its loveliness and beauty. There it stands symmetrical, 
peerless. His character we shall not attempt to portray in 
the individual deeds he performed; but in the principles and 
aspirations he cherished; for true greatness must be sought in 
the principles and purposes of a man rather than in the acts 
of his public life. Circumstances have elevated pigmies to 
thrones and shrowded in obscurity men capable of the 
deepest philosophical research, or the loftiest flights of the 
muse." 

In a brief address, in 1872, on the "Value of Mind Power," 
Dr. Twombly says: "In accurate and vigorous thinking, 
developed in action by stern will, we find the essentials of 
true growth. If we trace out the progress of society, we shall 
find that every advance has been the result of earnest, logical 
thinking. For centuries mental stupor prevails, intellect 
seems paralyzed; at length a grand idea bursts upon the mind 
of a thoughtful man; it flings him out among the stars to 
solve the problem of the universe; and humanity is lifted to a 
higher plane of intellectual life. * 

" Every industry is based upon a science, and did the farmer 
who delves in his fields understand the science of the soils and 
the principles of his vocation, as well as the geologist under- 
stands the principles of his favorite study, the farmer and the 
scientist would work with equal honor. The only means of 
protecting labor is to educate the laborer. Leave the man 
uncultivated, and tariffs and laws discriminating against cap- 
ital are of no avail. 

* * " Give to our youth good morals and 

the power of earnest thought, then our political institutions 
will be perpetuated, our great industries will be honored and 
promoted, our seminaries of learning will be fountains of life 
to the nation, and the glorious banner which proudly floats 
above us to-day, and which has been so recently baptized with 
the blood of your sons and your brothers, will wave in tri- 
umph through the centuries." 



54 SKETCHES OF THE 

In an address delivered the twenty-fifth of September 
1853, on the Wisconsin state fair grounds, upon the subject of 
mechanical and manufacturing industries, are these stirring 
declarations : 

" The grievances now calling forth the murmurings of the 
people, are many in form, yet essentially one in origin. By 
monopoly, industry is everywhere robbed of its just reward. 
This relentless tyrant, through various organizations, created 
ostensibly for the public good, exercises legislative functions, 
systematically levies unjust taxes upon the products of labor, 
and by vile combinations, commits general robbery in the 
name of commerce. A grasp like that of steel is upon every 
industry, and every toiler from the distant east to the golden 
gates of the west, pays tax to the greedy monster. * * * 

"I do not assert, nor do I believe, that all, or a majority of 
the evils of which laborers now complain come from the 
injustice and oppression of the men of wealth. The mam- 
moth monopolies of our age are made possible only through 
the supineness of the majority of our laborers. In an hour 
when questions of profound interest excite the public mind, 
and a war of classes is threatened, men should endeavor to 
comprehend the whole field of controversy, and hasten to 
adopt measures which, while they directly check aggression, 
shall lift the burdened party to such a position of power as to 
remove the liability to oppression." 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EE-APPEAISAL OF THE UNIVERSITY LANDS ADDITIONAL GRANT 

OF SEVENTY-TWO SECTIONS FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH UNI- 
VERSITY YEARS COL. W. R. PEASE PROF. JOHN B. FUCHS 

PROF. AUGUSTS KURSTEINER PROF. ADDISON E. VERRILL 

COL. WALTER S. FRANKLIN JUDGE BYRON PAINE HARLOW 

S. ORTON, LL. D. 

By the revised statutes of Wisconsin of 1849, the superin- 
tendence of the university lands was given to the secretary of 
state, treasurer of state, and attorney general, who were con- 
stituted commissioners to sell the same and invest the funds 
arising therefrom in such manner as the legislature might di- 
rect. They were also given power to invest all other univer- 
sity funds. The minimum price of the lands was declared to 
be the appraised value thereof, including the appraised value 
of the improvements thereon, and also the expense of apprais- 
ing and subdividing the same. There was secured, under cer- 
tain conditions, to all persons having preempted university 
lands, the right to purchase the same at their appraised value. 
The net proceeds of the sales of all lands, it was declared, 
which had been or might be granted to the state for the sup- 
port of a university, should be and remain a separate and per- 
petual fund, the interest of which should be appropriated to 
the establishment and support of the University. 

The lowest price at which the university lands could be sold, 
was changed from the appraised value to ten dollars an acre 
by an act of the legislature, approved February 9, 1850; but 
a law of the next year (approved March 17, 1851,) fixed the 



56 SKETCHES OF TffF 

minimum price at seven dollars an acre, at the same time au- 
thorizing any person occupying any of the lands to prove up 
his or her preemption y and purchase the same in accordance 
with the provisions of the revised statutes of 1849. And it 
was made the duty of the land commissioners to remit to all 
persons who had previously purchased any of the university 
lands by preemption the excess paid by them over the ap- 
praised value of such lands. The effect of this legislation was- 
to secure university lands to preemptors at their appraised 
talue, which was, on an average, far below the minimum price 
as fixed by the law of 1850 or even that of 1851. Immigra- 
tion was thus encouraged, but at the expense of the vital in- 
terests of the University. 

But the reduction did not stop here. An act of the legisla- 
ture, approved April 29, 1852, provided for the re-appraisal of 
the university lands and for the appointment by the governor 
of a commissioner to do the work, whose duty it was to make 
full examination of all sections and parts of sections of the 
lands remaining unsold at the date of his appointment, and to 
appraise the same at a fair valuation, which appraisal was not 
to be less than three dollars an acre for any tract. 

By the act ot congress to enable the people of Wisconsin 
territory to form a constitution and state government, and for 
the admission of the state into the union, approved August 6, 
1846, there were granted to Wisconsin twelve salt springs, with 
six sections of land adjoining to each in all seventy-two sec- 
tions. . The legislature of the state asked of the United States, 
011 the twenty-ninth of January, 1851, in lieu of this, an equal 
number of sections, to be selected from any land within the 
state, the whole to be given to the University, thus duplicating 
the first donation for the same purpose. Congress, by a law 
approved December 15, 1854, responded favorably to this re- 
quest, donating to the University "for the benefit and in aid of v 
the institution, "and for no other purpose whatever, seventy- 
two sections of land." This grant was secured mainly through 
the energetic efforts of Simeon Mills, of Madison, who had pre- 



CTF WISCONSIN. 57 

Tiously been appointed a commissioner to locate all unselected 
university lands, and. also, in anticipation, the saline lands for 
the institution. By this second benefaction of the general 
government, the ill effects of cheapening the lands were in a 
measure counteracted. The additional seventy-two sections 
thus acquired by Wisconsin were located in the counties of 
Pierce, Portage, and Kewaunee, 

On the twenty-first day of September, 1853, began the 
fourth university year of the institution. It ended with four 
Tegular, organized classes a senior class having been formed^ 
with Levi M. Booth and Charles T, Wakeley as members on 
the twenty-sixth of July, 1854. On that day was celebrated the 
.first comm'encement of the University of Wisconsin, the 
.senior class graduating, and its two members receiving the 
degree of bachelor of arts. The election by the board of 
regents in February, 1854, of S. P. Lathrop to the chair of 
chemistry and natural history added one more member to the 
faculty, now numbering four professorships. The division of 
the university year was changed from two terms of twenty 
weeks each, to three terms of thirteen weeks each. The regents 
also adopted a corporate seal with the device an up-turned eye 
and a beam of light from above. Motto: Niimen Lumen* 
Legend: Universitatis Wisconsiensis Sigillum. At the close 
of this university year, there were in attendance forty-seven 
students, all of whom, with two exceptions, were residents ol 
Wisconsin. 

The fifth university year commenced on the twentieth of 
September, 1854, without any senior class; hence, at its close, 
on the twenty-fourth of July, 1855, there were no graduations 
no commencement exercises, strictly speaking. Although, 
in 1854, at the September meeting of the board of regents, 
Daniel Read was chosen professor of mental philosophy, logic, 
rhetoric, and English literature, yet, as his term of office was 
not to commence for a considerable time, his services were not 
rendered available until 1856. There was employed, how- 
ever, during this university year, John P. Fuchs, M. D., as 



58 SKETCHES OF THE 

teacher in the German and French languages. This was a 
temporary arrangement, to be continued only until the chair 
of modern languages and literature should be permanently 
filled, Dr. Fuchs to be a candidate for that professorship when- 
ever the board of regents should proceed to an election. A 
vacancy in the tutorship having occurred by the resignation of 
S. H. Carpenter, in July, 1854, Augustus L. Smith was elected 
to that position, his term of service having commenced with 
the beginning of the "fifth university year. 

During its session of 1854, the legislature offered the regents 
of the University, a loan of fifteen thousand dollars from the 
principal of the university fund, for building purposes, which 
was accepted by the board, and the erection of a second uni- 
versity building the south dormitory was commenced upon 
the university grounds, a short distance south of the north 
dormitory. Although the contract was let at eighteen thous- 
and dollars, yet the entire cost of the building was a little over 
twenty thousand. It was completed and accepted, in June, 
1855, and was occupied for the first time in September follow- 
ing; that is to say, at the commencement of the sixth univer- 
sity year. This building, like its counterpart, the north dor- 
mitory, presents no very attractive features in respect to its 
architecture. Professor Sterling, in connection with the chan- 
cellor, was empowered to make the necessary arrangements 
for the occupation of the south end of the building for resi- 
dence and boarding. He and his family were entitled to their 
board and rooms without charge, in return for personal super- 
intendence and conduct of the boarding establishment. The 
other college officers resident in the building, in consideration 
of a release of rent, were to pay for themselves and families at 
the rate of three dollars per week for each member over five 
years of age, and half that sum for board of each servant. 
The residue of expenses for material and for market and 
kitchen service was to be charged to the students who boarded 
with them in the hall; but the charge to them was not to ex- 
ceed two dollars per week. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 5 

The sixth university year, commencing the nineteenth of 
September, 1855, with Samuel S. Benedict, James M. Flower, 
Sidney Foote, and Burgess C. Slaughter, as members of the 
senior class, ended the twenty-third of July, 1856, with their 
graduation, and the reception by them of the degree of bach- 
elor of arts. Dr. John B. Fuchs having been elected to the 
chair of modern languages and literature, entered upon his 
duties at the beginning of this university year; but the chair of 
chemistry and natural history, made vacant by the death of Prof. 
Lathrop, in December, 1854, was not filled by Ezra S. Carr, M. D., 
his successor, for some time, both he and Dr. Read, professors 
elect, not being inaugarated until the sixteenth of January, 
1856. The faculty of the University, at the close of the sixth 
university year, consisted, therefore, of seven professors and 
one tutor: John H. Lathrop, LL. D., chancellor, and profess- 
or of ethics, civil polity, and political economy; Daniel Read, 
LL. D., professor of mental philosophy, logic, rhetoric, and 
English literature; John W. Sterling, A. M., professor of 
mathematics, natural philosophy, and astronomy; Ezra S. 
Carr, M. D., professor of chemistry and natural history; O. M. 
Conover, A. M., professor of ancient languages and literature; 
John P. Fuchs, M. D., professor of modern languages and lit- 
erature; and Augustus L. Smith, tutor. 

Colonel W. R. Pease, of the army of the United States, was 
the first of the military professors appointed to a chair in the 
University. He was born July 8, 1831, in Utica, New York, 
and was a cadet of the United States military academy of 
West Point from July 1, 1851, to July 1, 1855, when he was 
graduated and promoted in the army to brevet second lieuten- 
ant of infantry, serving, in that capacity, in the seventh regi- 
ment. He was on duty at Fort Crawford, Wisconsin, and at Fort 
Smith, Arkansas, in the years 1856 and 1857, and in the Utah 
expedition in 1858 and 1859. He was afterward promoted to 
first lieutenant in the same regiment, and, on the ninth of 
June, 1861, received a captain's commission. His services 
during the rebellion were varied. He was mustering officer at 



60 SKETCHES OF THE 

Cincinnati; was mustering and disbursing officer of central 
New York, headquarters at Utica; and as colonel, he com- 
manded the one hundred and seventeenth regiment of New 
York volunteers. He also commanded the third brigade in 
defense of Washington, and was in the second Bull Run bat- 
tle. He commanded a brigade at the siege of Suffolk, Vir- 
ginia, and was engaged in the several battles at that place in 
April and May, 1863. He was breveted a major in the United 
States army, on the first of May of that year, for gallant and 
meritorious conduct at the siege just mentioned. 

Major Pease retired from active service on the twenty- 
eighth of August, 1863, for " disability resulting from long 
and faithful service, and disease contracted in the line of duty." 
He was chief mustering and disbursing officer for Connecticut 
and Rhode Island in the years 1864 and 1865, and in the next 
two years, for the state of New York. He was breveted a brig- 
adier general of volunteers for gallant and meritorious services 
during the rebellion; also, on the ninth of November, 1865, 
was breveted a lieutenant-colonel in the United States army. 

In January, 1868, Colonel Pease was detailed by an order of 
the war department as professor of military science and tactics 
at the University of Wisconsin. He reported for duty at 
once, to President Chadbourne, and immediately took charge 
of the department of "engineering and military tactics;" the 
department of civil engineering having, before that time, been 
formed, and instruction therein being now assigned him. The 
students were organized into a battalion of four companies, 
properly officered and uniformed, and regularly instructed in 
practical and theoretical military science. Colonel Pease con- 
tinued in charge until the ninteenth of March, 1869, when, by 
reason of disease contracted in the service during the war, he 
was, at his own request, relieved from duty at the University. 
He then returned to his home in Brooklyn, New York, where 
he now resides. 

In 1870, Colonel Pease was invited to the chair of philos- 
ophy and military science in the Louisiana state university; in 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 1 

1871, he was tendered the professorship of civil engineering 
and military science in the Western university of Pennsyl- 
vania; and in the same year was invited to the chair of math- 
ematics in the Pennsylvania military academy; all of which 
appointments he was compelled to decline on account of im- 
paired health. 

The selection of John P. Fuchs, M. D., as special instructor 
in the German and French languages, by the regents, in 1854, 
followed by his appointment to the chair of modern languages 
and literature, in 1855, resulted in his having but a brief con- 
nection with the institution, at that period, as he resigned his 
professorship the next year, to locate in Milwaukee, where he 
published and edited a newspaper during the Fremont cam- 
paign. However, upon the resignation of Prof. Pickard of the 
chair previously occupied by himself, he was again called to 
that office. This was in 1861. He discharged the duties of 
the position until the autumn of 1867, when his chair was 
abolished. v 

Dr. Fuchs was born in Paramaribo, Surinam (Dutch Guiana), 
in 1823. His father was a German from the Rhine provinces 
of Prussia. The son left South America in 1831, for Holland, 
where he went to school. At the age of sixteen, he entered 
the Friedrich Wilhelm gymnasium at Cologne ; but soon returned 
to Holland, to attend lectures at the university of Leyden. 
He afterward studied at the universities of Bohn, Heidelberg, 
and Berlin. At the age of twenty-five, he was able to pass 
government examination, and was awarded the title of doctor 
of medicine. He then went to Paris and practised in the pub- 
lic hospitals, paying especial attention to surgery. 

In 1849, Dr. Fuchs visited the United States, but soon re- 
turned to Europe, where he married, coming again to this 
country in 1851, to stay permanently. He lived first in Phil- 
adelphia. He emigrated to Wisconsin in 1854, when he be- 
came a resident of Madison and soon commenced instruction 
in the University. After leaving the institution in 1867, he 
returned to Milwaukee, to teach in the high school of that 



62 SKETCHES OF THE 

city. He afterward moved to Chicago and engaged in the 
practice of his profession, where he died on the sixteenth 01 
November, 1876. Dr. Fuchs was a close student, and skillful 
as a physician and surgeon. He wrote for numerous domestic 
and foreign periodicals. 

The resignation, in 1855, of Prof. Fuchs left vacant the 
chair of modern languages and literature in the University, 
which was filled the next year by the election of Auguste 
Kursteiner, J. U. C. Prof. Kursteiner continued to occupy 
the chair until 1858, when in July of that year, by an ordinance 
taking effect on the fourth Wednesday of September follow- 
ing, the regents declared all schools or chairs of instruction 
abolished and all appointments to the same null and void. 
Upon the "reconstruction" of the University ^ under this ordi- 
nance, Prof. J. C. Pickard was elected to the place previously 
occupied by Prof. Kursteiner. 

In August, 1868, the regents of the University elected 
Addison Emery Yerrill, A. M., to the chair of compar- 
ative anatomy and entomology, his instruction to be given by 
lectures. He continued a non-resident professor of the insti- 
tution until June, 1870, when he resigned. He was born at 
Greenwood, Maine, the ninth of February, 1839, and was 
educated at the Lawrence scientific school, Harvard university. 
Since 1864, he has been professor of zoology in Yale College, 
and is a member of numerous scientific societies. He has 
published largely upon zoology in American scientific period- 
icals. Prof. Verrill has been one of the associate editors of 
the American Journal of /Science and Arts (Silliman's) since 
March, 1869. Among scientists of the United States, he 
occupies a prominent position. His residence is New Haven, 
Connecticut. 

The board of regents, at their January meeting, 1857, creat- 
ed by ordinance, a department of theoretic and practical en- 
gineering, but deferred for a time the election of a professor 
to the chair thus established. Instruction was subse- 
quently given by Thomas D. Coryell in that department con- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 63 

tinned by him until the beginning of the civil war, when it was 
laid aside. However, the taking charge by Colonel W. R. 
Pease, in 1868, of that department so long vacant, but then 
known as that of " engineering and military tactics," resulted 
in its complete organization. In 1869, the regents changed 
the chair to that of " military science and civil engineering,"- 
Colonel Walter S. Franklin, S. B., being appointed to fill the 
position. He continued in that office one year when he re- 
signed. Subsequently, "mechanical engineering" was added 
to the department. 

Upon the organization of the law department of the Uni- 
versity, in 1868, Byron Paine, one of the judges of the 
supreme court of Wisconsin, consented to accept a professor- 
ship in that department, and to lecture therein gratuitously, 
when his other duties would permit. He lectured upon prac- 
tice. He was born at Painesville, Ohio, October 10, 1827. He 
first attended the common schools in his native village, becom- 
ing afterward a pupil of the Painesville academy, where he 
graduated with distinction. He then read law with his father, 
James H. Paine, who, in November, 1847, settled in Milwau- 
kee. About this period, the son commenced the study of 
German, pursuing it until he could read the language fluently, 
and speak it readily. He was admitted to the Milwaukee bar 
in 1849; and, on the twentieth of June, 1854, to the bar of 
the supreme court of the State. He was industrious in his 
profession, and soon became an able and powerful advocate. 

In 1853, he acted as Madison reporter of the Milwaukee 
Free Democrat. On the nineteenth of May, 1854, he made 
an argument before the supreme court of the state in the cel- 
ebrated Booth case, involving the appellate jurisdiction from 
state to United States courts, and the constitutionality of the 
fugitive slave law. His effort was directed against the validity 
of the enactment. This placed him at once in the front rank 
of the leading lawyers of Wisconsin, and gave him a wide rep- 
utation. He received congratulations from eminent men in 
various parts of the country. It was, indeed, the foundation 



64 ' SKETCHES OF THE 

of his legal reputation. It was regarded not only as one of 
the ablest efforts of his life, but one of the best arguments 
ever made on that side of the question. On the seventh 
of October, 1854, he married Miss Clarissa R. Wyman, of 
his native place. He addressed the young men of Waukesha 
college at the commencement, 1855, of that institution ; and, 
in the fall following, canvassed a part of the state; speaking 
on the republican side, during that contest. In January, 1856, 
he was elected chief clerk of the Wisconsin senate. On the 
tenth of November following, he was appointed county judge 
of Milwaukee county, and was elected to the same office in 
April following. This was a very strong evidence of the high 
esteem in which he was held by the people. He retained 
the position until June 21, 1859, when he was called to the 
office of associate justice of the supreme court of Wisconsin, 
being elected the April previous, as the successor of Justice 
A. D. Smith. As it was a question when the term of the lat- 
ter ended, whether on the thirty-first day of May, 1859, or on 
the first Monday in January, 1860, he went through with the 
formality of resigning his office, and the governor appointed 
Judge Paine as his successor on the twentieth of June. 

Judge Paine held his position on the bench of the supreme 

court until the fifteenth of November, 1864, he having 

resigned on the tenth of August previous to take effect on 
that day, to enter the army. He enlisted in the forty-third 
regiment, Wisconsin volunteer infantry, and was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel. His post was in Tennessee, where he 
remained until May, 1865, when the death of an only and 
much-loved brother called him home. On returning to civil 
life, Judge Paine again entered on the practice of his pro- 
fession in Milwaukee. This he continued until re-appointed, 
on the sixteenth of August, 1867, to the supreme court of the 
state, to succeed Justice Downer, resigned. In April, 1868, he 
was elected to fill the term expiring June 1, 1871; holding the 
office until his death, January 13, of that year. During his 
practice at the bar, he was associated with his father and 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 65 

brother, and for a time with Halbert E. Paine. While on the 
bench, he worked hard, and justified the most sanguine expec- 
tations of his friends. His published opinions show patient 
and careful examination; laborious research and investigation; 
a proper deference to authorities; just discrimination of 
adjudged cases; a clear and firm grasp of sound principle. 
His mind, in a legal way, was critical, but not revolutionary. 
He laid no violent hand upon the long established systems of 
equity and common-law jurisprudence. Many of his decisions 
might be cited as fine specimens of judicial reasoning and clear, 
persuasive argument. He was liberal in his views; and, as a 
citizen, humane and benevolent, frank and open-hearted. He 
had, in private life, a large circle of friends. He continued his 
law-lectures in the University with general acceptance, until 
stricken down by the disease which terminated his useful career. 
In 1869, the University conferred upon him the degree of 
doctor of laws. 

The regents elected Harlow S. Orton, LL. D., dean of the 
law faculty and professor of law, in 1869. He lectured upon 
various subjects: personal property; partnership; corpora- 
tions; contracts of sale; the law merchant; insurance; fixtures; 
the law of real estate; uses; trusts; and wills. The chair 
occupied by him was ably filled. He resigned his possi- 
tion in the University, in 1872. He is now one of the associ- 
ate justices of the supreme court of Wisconsin. * 

* Although the names of Luther S. Dixon, LL. D., and E. G. Ryan, 
LL, D., chief justices of the supreme court of Wisconsin, appear upon 
the catalogues of the University as professors of law, the former from 
1868 to 1874, the latter from 1874 to 1876, yet these gentlemen were not, 
in fact, officers of the institution, they having taken no part in instruc- 
tion therein during those years. 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER VII. 

SEVENTH ANT) EIGHTH UNIVERSITY YEAKS NORMAL AND AG- 
RICULTURAL DEPARTMENTS CREATED ATTEMPTS TO ORGAN- 
IZE MEDICAL AND LEGAL DEPARTMENTS ORGANIZATION OF 

THE ATHENIAN LITERARY SOCIETY DARK DAYS OF THE 

UNIVERSITY PROF. J. AV. STERLING. 

The beginning of the seventh university year was on the 
seventeenth of September, 1856; its ending, the twenty-second 
of July, 1857. The graduating class consisted of Sinclair 
Walker Botkin, Thomas Deboice Coryell, Charles Fairchild, 
William Greene Jenckes, and John Francis Smith. On the 
first day of August, 1856, Augustus L. Smith resigned his 
tutorship, and Madison Evans, A. B., of Indiana university, 
was appointed to fill the position. Auguste Kursteiner, pro- 
fessor of modern languages and literature, although elected 
the previous year to fill the chair made vacant by the resigna- 
tion of Prof. Fuchs, did not arrive and commence the duties of 
his office until the fifteenth of April, 1857. Madison Evans, 
having resigned the position of tutor at the end of this uni- 
versity year, was succeeded by one of those just graduating 
J. F. Smith. The whole number of students in the institution 
for the year, was one hundred and seventy-four, of whom one 
hundred and forty-four were residents of Wisconsin, while 
thirty were from other states and territories. 

The eighth university A r ear began on the sixteenth of Sep- 
tember, 1857, and ended on the fourth Wednesday of July, 
1858. The graduates were Richard Walter Hubbell, John 
William Slaughter, and William Freeman Vilas. During this 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 67 

time no changes were made in the faculty. As the catalogue 
for this university year included also a portion of the subse- 
quent one, the list of the professors contained only the names 
of those in office at the commencement of the latter year, 
Prof. James I). Butler having, by that time, taken the position 
occupied previously by Prof. Conover, and Prof. Joseph C. 
Pickard that occupied just before by Prof. Kursteiner; with 
the addition, also, of two instructors Thomas D. Coryell, A. 
B., in mathematics, practical surveying, and engineering, and 
David H. Tullis, in book-keeping and commercial calculations. 

Two new departments were created by the board of regents 
in the year 1855, one known as the normal department with 
a professor of the theory and practice of teaching, another 
styled the agricultural department with a professor of agricul- 
tural chemistry and the application of science to the arts. 
Prof. Read was elected to the chair of the first department; 
Prof. Carr, to that of the second; but no instruction was given 
in these departments until the next year; hence, the catalogue 
for the sixth university year, for the first time names these two 
professorships, in addition to those previously enumerated. 

The first term in the normal department continued from the 
sixteenth of April to the twenty-third of July, 1856, with Geo. 
W. Ashmore, Samuel S. Benedict, Samuel C. Chandler, John 
A. Chandler, Leander M. Comins, H. L. Delano, Samuel Fel- 
lows, John Ford, F. J. Harrington, E. Judkins, C. W. Leavens, 
Edwin Marsh, J. W. Slaughter, John E. Sutton, W. F. Vilas, 
S. Vining, O. Williams, and C. Zimmerman in attendance 
eighteen in all. Among the subjects lectured upon by Prof. 
Read were: education what is it? physical education; intel- 
lectual education; moral education; gesthetical education; an 
examination of the powers of the mind as to communicating 
and receiving knowledge; who does the work of education? 
the office of the teacher, and the importance of making teach- 
ing a distinct profession; the school house and its proper fur- 
niture and appointments; school polity and discipline; incen- 
tives to study; mode of hearing recitations; punishments; 



68 SKETCHES OF THE 

premiums; graded schools; school libraries; proper methods 
of teaching different subjects; what the state can do; and 
school laws of Wisconsin. The class in attendance on the 
second annual course of lectures in this department, in 1857, 
numbered twenty-eight. The next year, these lectures were 
attended, as to part of the course, by a majority of the students 
of the University. 

The class in the agricultural department was organized 
simultaneously with the teachers' class, April 16, 1856, and 
continued through the summer term of the University, that 
the members in the normal department might avail themselves 
of the instructions given by Prof. Carr, on agricultural chem- 
istry and the applications of science to the arts. The regents 
had previously made provisions for a working laboratory, fur- 
nished with the requisite apparatus and materials. Students 
in the agricultural class were directed in the experimental 
study of the facts and laws of natural science, and in the 
analysis of soils and of animal and vegetable products. The 
results of the analytical course were applied to the doctrine of 
specific fertilizers and the processes of agriculture. The 
next year, instructions commenced with, and continued 
through, the winter term of the University, in this department. 
The arrangement was the same for the eighth university year 
(1857-1858), the course of lectures by Prof. Carr being deliv- 
ered during the winter term. 

By the act organizing the University, which became a 
law July 26, 1848, it was declared that the institution should 
consist of four departments, one of which was a department 
of medicine. To declare that it should be was one thing; 
being was quite another. As early as 1849, the chancellor of 
the University addressed a communication to the medical 
society of the state, inviting suggestions relative to the most 
suitable plan for organizing this department. " In accord- 
ance with the obvious intent of the charter [organic law]," 
said the regents, in their second report, " such a department 
will in due time be opened." Again, in their third annual 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 69 

report, they say: "The organization of a medical faculty as a 
department of the University, is under advisement." But in 
their fourth report they declare that "no steps have yet been 
taken toward the organization of the faculty of medicine, nor 
will the funds of the University, for some time to corne, be ad- 
equate to its endowment." In their fifth communication, they 
speak in similar language of the prospects of the department. 
Then, for a time, the subject rested. Finally, on the tenth of 
February, 1855, the regents passed an ordinance for the organ- 
ization ol the department. There were to be seven chairs: one 
of anatomy and physiology; a second, of surgery; a third, of 
theory and practice of medicine; a fourth, of obstetrics and 
the diseases of women and children; a fifth, of chemistry and 
pharmacy; a sixth, of materia medica and botany; and a seventh, 
of medical jurisprudence. So, having seven professorships 
in the medical department, seven professors must be appointed 
to fill the seven chairs. And, " to make assurance doubly 
sure," another chair was added. Alfred L. Castleman, M. D., 
was elected professor of theory and practice of medicine; E/ra 
S. Carr, M. D., of chemistry and pharmacy; D. C. Ayres, M. 
D., of obstetrics and diseases of women and children; George 
D. Wilber, M. D., of materia medica and botany; Samuel W. 
Thayer, M. D., of anatomy; Joseph Hobbins, M. I)., of surg- 
ery; Alexander Schue, M. D., of the institutes of medicine 
and pathological anatomy; and J. M. Lewis, M. D., was made 
demonstrator of anatomy. An appropriation was made by the 
regents of four hundred and fifty dollars, which sum was 
devoted to the purchase of a cabinet of materia medica. 
Another appropriation of five hundred dollars was made for 
the procuring of apparatus and specimens; but how the money 
was invested there appears no evidence on the records of the 
University. The " medical department," did not survive the 
last appropriation. 

Under the organic act, one of the four departments of the 
University was to be "a department of law." But from year 
to year, because of financial difficulties under which the reg- 



TO SKETCHES OF THE 

ents labored, its organization was postponed, until, finally, on 
the twenty-ninth of January, 1857, one was established, and 
E. G. Ryan and T. O. Howe were elected professors therein; 
but, beyond this, nothing was done. For the next ten years, 
there was a continued lack of funds. 

Although the first literary society -the Athenian -was 
organized the eighth day of November, 1850, dating its exist- 
ence almost as early as the University itself, with twelve 
names constituting its membership Levi Booth, S. W. Botkin, 
Wm. Holt, F. A. Ogden, R. L. Ream, J. W. Sterling, Win. 
Stuart, George W. Stoner, D. K. Tenney, Charles T. Wakeley, 
O. M. Conover, and Ed. McPherson yet its incorporation 
was not effected until the spring of 1852. By an act of the 
legislature, approved the tenth day of April of that year, 
'Charles T. Wakeley, Levi Booth, George W. Stoner, I). K. 
Tenney, Francis A. Ogden, George Woodward, Jr., and their 
associates and successors " were created a body corporate by 
the name of a The Athenian Society of the University of 
Wisconsin;" and by that name they were to remain in per- 
petual succession, for the purpose of establishing and main- 
taining a library, instituting literary and scientific lectures 
and debates, and providing other means of moral and intel- 
lectual improvement, with power for such purpose to take by 
purchase, devise, or otherwise, and to hold, transfer, and con- 
vey real and personal property to the amount of twenty-five 
thousand dollars; also farther, to take, hold, and convey all 
such books, cabinets, libraries, and furniture as might be nec- 
essary or expedient for attaining the objects and carrying into 
effect the purposes of the corporation; and also farther, in their 
corporate name, to sue and ba sued, appear, prosecute, and 
defend all actions and causes to final judgment and execution, 
in any court of law or equity; to have a common seal and to 
alter the same at pleasure; and to establish a constitution, 
by-laws, and regulations consistent with the laws of the state, 
for the government of the society, and for the due and orderly 
conduct and regulation of its affairs, and the management of 



TNIVEKSITY OF WISCONSIN. 71 

its property. The residue of the act of incorporation gives 
directions as to the management of its property, the election 
of proper officers, and the continuing in office of such as were 
then incumbents. The constitution and by-laws, previously 
adopted, were to remain in force, and the property of the 
society was to b-3 free from taxation. The purposes in view, 
in the organization of tha society, were, the advantages to be 
derived from exercise in debate, declamation, composition, and 
parliamentary practice. Motto: Megiston en Anthropo Phreu, 
The constitution adopted provides for the election of a presi- 
dent, vice-president, secretary, censor, assistant censor, treas- 
urer, librarian, assistant librarian and recording scribe, and 
defines their duties. It also declares who may become mem- 
bers, active and honorary, and authorizes suspension or expul- 
sion in certain cases. Meetings are provided for. both regular 
and special; and there are miscellaneous provisions, covering 
a variety of subjects. The by-laws of the society are well 
drawn. They give directions as to the regular exercises, order 
of debate, bills of exercises, decision of questions, appoint- 
ment of critic, inauguration of officers, initiation o' members, 
delinquencies, library, committees, and other important mat- 
ters. The rules of order are brief, pointed, and admirably 
constructed. 

Frequently asking loans of the legislature, by the regents 
of the University, caused, in the end, a dangerous assump- 
tion on the part of the former. On the twenty-fifth of April, 
1854, a law went into operation, by which the fiscal year of 
the University, it Was declared, should "' terminate on the last 
day of December in each year." And it wa3 made the duty 
of the board of regents, in their annual report to the gov- 
ernor, to make a detailed estimate of th3 current expansas of 
the University for the next succeeding fiscal year, showing 
the amount necessary to pay the interest on its debts, speci- , 
fying the same, the amount of salaries of officers, professors, 
and tutors, specifying the same, and the amount necessary for 
all other expenses and disbursements, in detail; which the 



72 SKETCHES OF THE 

governor was requested to communicate to the legislature. 
But even this rigorous censorship was out-done by a clause in 
the law which declared that, after the expiration of that year, 
no money should be drawn from the state treasury, by the 
board of regents, except in pursuance of an express appropria- 
tion by law. It will readily be seen that the words "no- 
money shall be drawn from the state treasury " carried with 
them the idea that the funds of the University were state 
funds, as much so as any other in the treasury. Beside this r 
they expressed a want of confidence in the management of 
the institution very clearly to be understood. 

Now began the dark days of the University of Wisconsin. 
Petitions were sent up to the legislature asking for its aband- 
onment, and for a division of funds among denominational 
colleges of the state; and a bill was actually introduced (but 
quickly withdrawn) to that effect. At the next session, a still 
greater hostility was manifested; but a few active members 
stood between the institution and its enemies, and saved it 
from destruction. It was claimed that there was a general 
mismanagement of the institution, and a failure to meet the 
wants of the people. It cannot be denied that there were some 
grounds for this charge; but another accusation persistently 
put forth, that the University was an immense moneyed insti- 
tution for the education of a few aristocratic young men was, 
certainly, as "baseless" as the "fabric of a vision." 

The next legislature, with a more enlightened policy, deter- 
mined to build up rather than destroy to repair, if possible, 
not to demolish; so they undertook the task of a total reor- 
ganization; and, to their credit be it said, wholly in the inter- 
est, and looking to the perpetuity, of the institution. They 
failed, it is true, but only for the want of time not for lack 
of a proper understanding of the situation and the demands 
of the people. 

The regents took up the work that had failed in the legis- 
lature, determined to carry it forward to its full realization. 
How well thev succeeded is left for future consideration. 











J. W. STERLING, PH. D., LL.D. 

FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT STATE UNIVERSITY. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 73 

/ * 

i 

Through all the struggle none watched the progress of affairs 
with more interest or felt more keenly adverse comments than 
the chief executive officer, Chancellor Lathrop. It was natural 
that complaints were directed against him rather than the 
board of regents; so he determined to resign. In this act, h<? 
was certainly justifiable; but Wisconsin was thereby the 
loser. 

The election by the board of regents, on the seventh day of 
October, 1848, of John H. Lathrop L. L. D. as chancellor of 
the University, and John W. Sterling, A. M., as professor of 
mathematics, was the first action looking toward the organiza- 
tion of a faculty for the institution. Ever since that day. 
Prof. Sterling has filled the same chair. He was born in Wy- 
oming county, Pennsylvania, on the seventeenth of July, 1816. 
His earliest education was such as could be obtained in com- 
mon schools; but aspirations for more liberal instruction, deter- 
mined him to attend an academy at Hamilton, New York. 
At this institution, and at a similar one in Homer, in the same 
state, he received the necessary preparation for entering col- 
lege. However, he now turned his attention to the law read- 
ing two years in the office of Judge Woodward, of Wilkes 
barre, Pennsylvania; but he did not afterward enter upon the 
practice of the profession. 

In the fall of 1837', then twenty-one years of age, his de- 
sire for broader culture induced him to enter the sophomore 
class at the college of New Jersey. He completed the regular 
course in that institution, graduating with honor in the class 
of 1840. Before this, he had been elected principal of Wilkes- 
barre academy, and he now engaged as instructor therein. He 
continued in that office very successfully for one year, when 
he resigned to enter upon another course of study; this time, 
in the theological seminary in Princeton, New Jersey. This 
occupied three years. He completed the course in the spring 
of 1844. During most of this period he officiated as tutor in 
the college of New Jersey. He now spent a year or more in 
missionary labors in Pennsylvania. 



SKETCHES OF THE 

Prof. Sterling came to Wisconsin in July, 1846. Soon after 
his arrival, he was elected professor of mathematics in Carroll 
college, Waukesha. He occupied the chair a short time, 
when he resigned his office "the sinews of war" were want- 
ing. He then engaged in teaching a private school in that 
place, continuing until called to the University of Wisconsin. 

As an instructor, he is conscientious, prompt, painstaking, 
accurate. Other teachers may carry their pupils over more 
ground in a given time, but few will instruct them better. 
His methods and manner of teaching have this important 
characteristic: they produce satisfactory results. Of his ability 
in the class-room, hundreds of students who have had the 
benefit of his instruction, are witnesses. 

But not alone as teacher has the career of Prof. Sterling, for 
so many years, been an honorable one. We come now to speak 
of him as acting head of the University. The connection of 
Chancellor Barnard with the institution was little else than in 
name, particularly as regards the actual administration of its 
affairs; the burden was upon the shoulders of Prof. Sterling, 
who was, during the whole time, virtually its chief officer. 
From the resignation of Dr. Barnard to the installation of 
President Chadbourne, a period of over six years, he was, by 
authority of the regents, acting-chancellor. He proved himself, 
during this period, a wise counselor, a faithful friend to the 
students, extending encouragement and generous aid to all 
who were in need, ruling in University affairs with a firm but 
kindly hand, and, by precept and example, stimulating all the 
classes to a higher culture and nobler manhood. Throughout 
all these university years, beside the care and numerous duties 
connected with his office, he was engaged, most of the time, 
five hours daily, in the class-room. Prof. Sterling's unself- 
ish devotion to the University, through evil as well as through 
good report, his faithful stewardship, uniformly rendered, 
whether as professor or chief officer, have endeared him, in a 
marked and peculiar way, not only to those immediately con- 
nected with the institution, but to its friends everywhere. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 75 

During the entire connection of Prof. Sterling with the Uni- 
versity, he has not lost over two months. Having previously 
acted as dean of the faculty, he was, in 1860, continued by 
the regents in that office. In 1865, he was elected vice-chan- 
cellor, and vice-president in 1869, which office he still holds. 
In the last mentioned year, he was offered the presidency of a 
college near San Francisco, California, \vhich he declined. For 
one year after the resignation of President Ghadbourne, he was 
the acting head of the University by virtue of his office of 
vice-president, and again for one term after the resignation 
of President Twombly. In addition to the chair of mathe- 
matics, he filled those of natural philosophy and astronomy, 
from the time instruction was first given in those studies, down 
to 1874, when they were assigned to others. While acting- 
chancellor, after the resignation of Dr. Barnard, Prof. Sterling 
presided at commencements to the time of Dr. Chadbourne's 
administration, giving a brief address at each. From the last 
of these, the following is extracted: 

"It is with unfeigned pleasure that I greet you as alumni of the 
University of Wisconsin. You have struggled up to this posi- 
tion through many difficulties and discouragements. In the 
unswerving constancy and persistence with which, in the face 
of so many obstacles, you have adhered to the noble purpose 
of acquiring an education, we have the earnest of an honora- 
ble and successful life. 

" I rejoice in every worthy accession to the graduates of the 
University. The number and character of its alurnni is, one 
of the most potent elements of influence and prosperity to any 
institution of learning. How much do Harvard, and Yale, and 
Princeton, to-day owe to their numerous alumni scattered all 
over the world. Very few have any proper appreciation of the 
difficulties, which, even in the most favorable circumstances, 
must be encountered by those who are engaged in laying the 
foundations of an institution of learning. One, and perhaps 
the principal source of difficulty, lies in the absence of that 
sympathy and co-operation which are best supplied by a 
numerous and loyal alumni. * * * 



76 SKETCHES OF THE 

" We rejoice in any evidence that the prejudice and the op- 
position under which the University has heretofore labored are 
giving way to more enlightened views, and more worthy action. 
We take pride in recognizing the fact that the people and the 
legislature of this state are beginning to extend to their Uni- 
versity that sympathy and generous support without which it 
cannot reasonably be expected to prosper. And we look for- 
ward to the day, not far distant, when the University of Wis- 
consin shall be the chief pride of the state, and her glory 
abroad." 

From a baccalaureate sermon preached by Prof. Sterling to 
the graduating classes of the different departments of the 
University, June 18, 1871, the following is given, as illustrat- 
ing his general style of thought: 

" Whether we accept the doctrine of the Christian faith or 
not, the fact cannot be controverted that there are evil tend- 
encies and influences to be resisted; that there are conquests 
to be made, which demand the utmost vigilance, patient endur- 
ance, systematic and vigorous exertion. Such is the battle of 
life. Those about to engage in this conflict should have a 
clear understanding and deep conviction of its nature, of its 
difficulties, of its dangers, and of the principles on which 
alone it can be successfully conducted. This conflict is only 
for those who have placed before them some high and noble 
object; for such, there is a warfare; and, for such, victory is 
true glory." 

On the twenty-seventh day of January, 1874, Prof. Sterling 
read before the Wisconsin state agricultural society a paper 
on " The Protection of Life and Property from Lightning," 
which was afterward highly commended by Prof. Henry, of the 
Smithsonian Institution. He explained in a clear manner the 
importance to farmers and others, of understanding the laws 
of electrical action, and that only a moderate degree of study 
was necessary to comprehend the leading principles connected 
therewith. The destructive effects of lightning were dwelt 
upon; but the practical utility of the paper 2onsisted, mostly, 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 77 

in a lucid explanation of the protection afforded buildings by 
the use of lightning-rods, in directions for the construction 
of the latter, and how they ought to be put up so that they 
could be relied upon as safeguards. 

In 1866, Prof. Sterling received from his alma mater the 
honorary degree of doctor of philosophy, and the same year 
from Lawrence university, at Appleton, Wisconsin, that of 
doctor of laws; honors worthily bestowed, not only upon an 
earnest and faithful teacher, an intelligent and high-minded 
citizen, but upon a conscientious Christian gentleman; for, as 
a man, Prof. Sterling is above reproach. His integrity of char- 
acter, unscrupulous fidelity, and exalted sense of honor, are 
beyond question. 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE HESPERIAN SOCIETY INCORPORATED REORGANIZATION OF 

THE UNIVERSITY PROF. WILLIAM F. ALLEN. 

By an act of the legislature of Wisconsin, approved the 
twenty-fourth day of February, 1855, "the Hesperian society 
of the Universitv of Wisconsin " was incorporated. Its char- 
ter members were Randall W. Hanson, George W. Perry, 
Alfred W. Lathrop, Richard W. Hubbell, William F. Vilas, T. 
D. Coiyell, and S. W. Botkin. The purposes in view, as 
declared by the preamble of the constitution of the society, 
were, "the improvement and discipline of the mental facul- 
ties, by practice in disputation, English composition, arid elo- 
cution." Motto: Magna Parens Virum. The act of incor- 
poration is nearly identical in its provisions with that of the 
Athensean society. A constitution was adopted, providing for 
the election of officers and denning their duties; declaring 
who might become members of the society, active and honor- 
ary; also, providing for suspensions and expulsions, for regu- 
lar and special meetings, and for amendments. The bv-laws 
of the society and " rules of the house " were drawn up with 
care and judgment. Beside its charter members, it numbered 
twenty-six during 1855: John H. Kilroy, Elias C. Morse, 
Elan G. Crandall, W. W. Botkin, Geo. Decker, J. H. Slavan, 
R. H. Cornell, Edwin Marsh, S. P. Clark, C. Bishop, W. O. 
Saxton, I). H. Brooks, Wm. Treat, G. W. Ashmore, Geo. C. 
Hill, E. B. Guild, W. H. Brisbane, J. M. Stoner, Edgar A. 
Sadd, L. B. Honn, J. F. Smith, E. Conklin, J. G. Gill, J. H. 
Douglas, J. Jacobs, and S. P. Hall. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 79 

It had ever been the uniform sentiment of the board of 
regents since the organization of the University, that the 
studies of the department of science, literature, and the arts, 
should be selected, arranged, and pursued, with a distinct 
reference to their bearing on the industrial pursuits of civil- 
ized life, as well as on the personal culture of the pupil. In 
order to give a fuller expression to this idea, as well as to 
make radical changes in the " ways and means," generally, of 
the institution, an ordinance of reorganization was passed, 
in June, 1858, which, after discussion and amendment, at the 
semi-annual meeting, in July, took its final form, going into 
effect " from and after the fourth Wednesday of September," 
of that year. In the adoption of this ordinance, the regents 
hoped " to meet the educational wants of the community, and 
to give force and effect to the well-considered views of the 
friends of education." 

The department of science, literature, and the arts, was 
made to consist of the schools of philosophy, of philology, of 
natural science, of civil and mechanical engineering, of agri- 
culture, and of polity. The course of study connected with 
the schools of philosophy, philology, polity, and natural 
science, were arranged to extend over a space of four years, 
the student, upon completing it, to receive the degree of bach- 
elor of arts. A successful prosecution of the same pursuits 
for three additional years would secure the degree of master 
of arts. It was also provided that a course of study, to be 
called the " scientific course," which was to extend over a 
space of four years, should be connected with the schools of 
civil and mechanical engineering and agriculture, also with 
those of philosophy, polity, natural science, and philology 
(excepting ancient languages and literature), the student who 
might complete the whole course, to receive the degree of 
bachelor of philosophy; and, after three years successful pur- 
suit of the same branches, the degree of master of philosophy. 
After arranging the details of the whole plan so as to harmon- 
ize the different schools with each other, then came the sweep- 



80 SKETCHES OF THE 

ing provision that " all schools or chairs of instruction hereto- 
fore established in the University of Wisconsin. * * * by 
ordinance or otherwise, are hereby abolished, and all appoint- 
ments in the same are declared to be null and void." 

On the reorganization of the institution under the provisions 
of this ordinance, Henry Barnard was made chancellor; John 
H. Lathrop, professor of ethical and political science; Daniel 
Read, professor of mental science, logic, rhetoric, and English 
literature; John W. Sterling, professor of mathematics and 
natural philosophy; Ezra S. Carr, professor of chemistry and 
natural history; James D. Butler, professor of ancient lan- 
guages and literature; Joseph C. Pickard, professor of modern 
languages and literature; Thomas D. Coryell, instructor in 
civil and mechanical engineering; John F. Smith, tutor in 
Latin, Greek, and mathematics (preparatory); and David H. 
Tullis, instructor in commercial calculations and book-keeping. 
It was thus, at the beginning of the ninth university year, that 
the institution made a new start in its career. For the future, 
strong hopes were entertained. 

At the expiration of the university year, in 1867, several 
changes in, and additions to, the number of instructors were 
made by the board of regents. William Francis Allen was 
called to the chair of ancient languages and history. He was 
born at Northborough, Massachusetts, September 25, 1830, 
where he attended the common schools; and, afterward, partly 
at home and partly at Leicester academy and Roxbury Latin 
school, he was fitted for college, entering Harvard in 1847 
and graduating in 1851. After this, he taught for three years 
in New York city, as private instructor. In 1854, he went to 
Europe, studying one term of six months at Berlin and one at 
Goettingen. He went to Italy in the autumn of 1855, giving 
three months at Rome to the study of the topography of the 
ancient city. He next visited Naples and Greece, returning 
to the United States in 1856. 

For the next seven years, Prof. Allen taught in the English 
and Classical School in West Newton, Massachusetts. He left 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 81 

this position in 1863, and spent two years in the fouth, in the 
service of the freedmen's and western sanitary commissions, 
returning to the north in 1865. He was afterward engaged 
for one year as professor of ancient languages at Antioch col- 
lege, Yellow Springs, Ohio, arid on year in Eagleswood mili- 
tary academy, Perth Am boy, New Jersey; when he was elect- 
ed to the professorship in the University of Wisconsin, as pre- 
viously mentioned. In 1870, his chair was changed to that of 
Latin and history; and this position he continues to hold. 

In 1861, was published the "Classical Hand Book." This 
work was written by Prof. Allen and his brother, T. P. Allen. 
He and another brother, J. H. Allen, in 1868 and the year fol- 
lowing, gave to the schools of the country the " Manual Latin 
Grammar," " Latin Lessons," and a " Latin Reader." " Lat- 
in Composition," a work of his own, was published in 1870. 
Associated with his brother last named, and with Prof. J. B. 
Greenough, of Harvard, he has edited " Select Orations of 
Cicero," 1873: "Cicero de Senectute," 1873; "Gai Salvsti Cris- 
pi de Catilinae Conivratirme," 1874; " Pvbli Vergili Maronis 
Bvcolica: Aeneidos 1-VI," 1874; " Gai Ivli Caesaris de Bello 
Gallico," 1874; " Pvbli Ovidi Nasonis Poemata Qvaedam Ex- 
cerpta," 1875. For all these, the particular work of Prof. Allen 
has been the furnishing of historical and antiquarian matter. 
The philological and grammatical portions were written by 
Proi. Greenough, while the general editing was attended to 
by Prof. J. H. Allen. It is doubtful whether a literary par*- 
nership, productive of such excellent results, has existed 
in this country. Probably the best of these books is "Cicero." 
It contains the select orations of that famous Roman, chrono- 
ogically arranged, and covering the entire period of his pub!'- 
life. It gives a very complete view of his career as orator ana 
statesman, extending through about forty of the most eventful 
years of the later republic. 

To general literature, Prof. Allen, associated with C. P. 
Ware and Lucy M. Garrison, gave, in 1867. a unique volume, 
unpretending in size, entitled "Slave Songs of the United 



82 SKETCHES OF THE 

States." Therein are to be found many real negro songs of 
the south, set to music, not spurious ones manufactured at 
the north, to order; and these are genuine melodies of the 
southern plantation. Thus have been preserved some curious 
relics of a state of society now passed away forever gone, 
through blood, and fire, and great tribulation! The chief merit 
of the book consists in its preservation of so many genuine 
outgrowths of natural musical feeling of a primitive race. The 
introduction to " Slave Songs," which was written wholly by 
Prof. Allen, is replete with information concerning the " mel- 
odies" of the south; beside, it is admirable in its style. Take 
the following as a sample: 

" The best that we can do * * * with paper and types, 
or even with voices, will convey but a faint shado\v of the orig- 
inal. The voices of the colored people have a peculiar quality 
that nothing can imitate; and the intonations and delicate 
variations of even one singer cannot be reproduced on paper. 
* * * I despair of conveying any notion of the effect ol 
a number singing together, especially in a complicated 'shout,' 
like, * I can't stay behind, my Lord!' or, ' Turn, sinner, 
turn O!' 

"There is no singing in parts, as we understand it; and yet 
no two appear to be singing the same thing; the leading 
singer starts the words of each verse, often improvising, and 
the others who ' base ' him, as it is called, strike in with the 
refrain, or even join in the solo when the words are familiar. 
When the 'base' begins, the leader often stops, leaving the 
rest of his words to be guessed at; or, it may be, they are 
taken up by one of the other singers. And the ' basers ' them- 
selves seem to follow their own whims, beginning when they 
please and leaving off when they please; striking an octave 
above or below (in case they have pitched the tune too low or 
too high), or hitting some other note that chords, so as to pro- 
duce the effect of a marvellous complication and variety, and 
yet with the most perfect time, and rarely with any discord." 

As a writer for reviews, Prof. Allen takes high rank. Nota- 



VXIVKK8TTY OF WISCONSIN, 

ibly among his contributions to periodicals of that class are: 
>u Recent German Works on Roman History," 1857, in the 
.Worth Amrriran Rerieir; " Rawlinson's Herodotus," Christian 
Examiner* 1859; "-Slavery in Rome," North American JRc* 
view, 1860; "The Future of the South," 1862, "Democracy 
on. Trial," 1863, "The Freedmen and Free Labor in the 
.South," 1804, " South Carolina," 1865, " The American Ex- 
^cutive," 1866, " Our Colleges," 1867, all to be found in the 
columns of the Christian Examiner, In 1871, he con- 
tributed to the North American Review, " The Religion of 
Ancient Greece;" and, in the same year, to the Christian Ex- 
aminer, "The Caucus System." He has been a constant con- 
tributor to the Nation almost since its establishment. We 
find in J-Fows at Home, in 1870, "A Day with a Roman Gen- 
tleman;" and, in 1871, in the North American Review, "The 
Religion of the Ancient Romans " -probably the ablest of 
all his papers given to the press. In the opening 1 paragraph, 
Prof. Allen says: 

" The ' Mythology of the Greeks and Romans, 1 as it has here- 
tofore been taught in our school-books and used as material in 
modern literature, is in truth, neither Greek mythology nor 
Roman mythology; but an incongruous mixture of the two, 
Grecian fable with Roman nomenclature. So long as it was 
purely a matter of fancy and of literary concern, there was no 
great harm done. Everybody understood what was meant by 
the Olympian Jove, the Eleusinian worship of Ceres, and the 
temple of Diana of the Ephesians, better indeed than if we 
had said Zeus, Demeter, and Artemis. But with the present 
century has come in a new school of philology, which har- 
abandoned the merely literary treatment of such themes, for 
one rigidly scientific, and which has discovered that names arc 
not an indifferent matter in science; in fact, that, in such a 
Held of inquiry as this, the name is often the key to the entire 
investigation." 

To a number of periodicals, of less pretentious than those 
previously mentioned. Prof. Allen has contributed papers of in- 



84 SKETCHES OF THE 

terest; as, for example, those on "Territorial Development of 
the Great Powers of Europe," in 1871, in the Aldinc. Of his 
public addresses, " Practical Education," delivered before the 
university of Nebraska, June 19, 1870, is worthy of special 
commendation. "The cry is," said the speaker, upon that occa- 
sion, " for Practical Education; for speedy and tangible results. 
Life is too short, and its needs too urgent to waste our time on 
subtle theories and indecisive preparation. Every word and 
every act must be made to tell. If the primary and most essen- 
tial principle of education is to afford a training for future use, 
nevertheless its results must not lie too far in the future, or be 
too obscure and uncertain in their working out. We must 
have in view the practical and pressing wants of every-day 
life, not the rarer excellencies of exceptional character. When 
we raise the question, ' What knowledge is of most worth? 1 we 
are answered, 'that which will best prepare us for complete liv- 
ing.' * * * Latin and Greek are to be banished from the 
curriculum because they are not spoken at the railroad sta- 
tions, and are not used in prices current and quotations of 
stocks. Philosophy and literature are barely tolerated. Even 
constitutional law and political economy are looked on askance. 
* * * Liberal and even lavish grants are ready for what- 
ever has a practical sound scientific and industrial schools of 
every sort, laboratories and observatories while the branches 
distinctively devoted to culture are treated with neglect, or 
even contempt. 

".Now this education in external nature, these scientific 
and industrial schools, these laboratories and observatories, are 
doing an invaluable work in the furtherance of genuine cul- 
ture of practical education in the best and highest sense. I 
would not disparage them; rather 1 would do honor to them, 
by claiming for them a higher place among educational agen- 
cies than their special advocates are apt to recogni/e. Neither 
would I deny that if, of two rival branches of study, or systems 
of discipline, equal in intrinsic educational power, the one is 
more immediately and readily applicable to the common uses 
of every-dav life than the other, it should be preferred. What 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 85 

tm 

1 say is, that, in a system of education, this should always be a 
subsidiary point; that disciplinary power training, should 
come first; while practical usefulness, in the sense in which the 
term is generally used, should be only incidental." 

In Prof. Allen's published address upon "Agriculture in 
Middle Ages," delivered on the eighth of February, 1877, be- 
fore the Wisconsin state agricultural and horticultural con- 
vention, in Madison, are to be found not only practical thoughts 
upon agriculture, but a number of interesting historical refer- 
ences bearing upon that subject. He has read before the 
Wisconsin academy of science, arts, and letters, papers on 
" The Rural Population of England as Classified in Domesday 
Book;" '"The Rural Classes of England in the 13th Century;" 
" United States' Sovereignty: Whence Derived and When 
Vested;" " Peasant Communities in France;" and, "The Origin 
of the Freeholders." These contributions indicate a wide 
range of reading and thought. 

But Prof. Allen's latest effort the delivering of twenty lec- 
tures upon the " History of the Fourteenth Century," in Johns 
Hopkins university, Baltimore, in March, 1878, is, to the 
present time, it is believed, his crowning literary work. These 
lectures treated of a period extending from 1273 to 1431, of 
the Christian era. They exhibited profound scholastic attain- 
ment and research, such, indeed, as cannot fail to place him 
in a prominent position before the country in the line of anti- 
quarian and historical investigation. He was listened to by 
large and appreciative audiences throughout the entire course. 

As a teacher of Latin, Prof. Allen is precise and accurate. 
He lays especial stress upon the study as of great value from 
a purely literary point of view. His idea is, that the study of 
the languages as a part of education is mainly valuable for the 
purposes of culture and intellectual training, not as a mere 
matter of drill; and this idea is made prominent in all his work 
in the class-room. His favorite field of investigation is history and 
antiquities, particularly those of Rome and the middle ages. 
It is probable that no American scholar has a better knowl- 
edge of Roman antiquities than Prof. Allen. 



SKETCHES OF THFT 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE NINTH, TENTH, AND ELEVENTH UNIVERSITY YEARS AX 

ALUMNI ASSOCIATION ORGANIZED UNIVERSITY HALL ERECT- 
ED DR. BARNARD INAUGURATED CHANCELLOR FIRST NOR- 
MAL CLASS IN THE UNIVERSITY RESIGNATION OF DR. BAR- 
NARD AS CHANCELLOR PROF. JOHN B. PARKINSON. 

The ninth university year commenced on the third Wednes- 
day of September, 1858, and ended on the fourth Wednesdav 
of July, 1859, with a graduating class of eight members: 
Alexander C. Botkin, Leonard S. Clark, Samuel Fallows. 
Edward B. Guild, Elbert O. Hand, Edwin Marsh, in the clas- 
sical course; H : ll C. Bradford and Phillip C. Slaughter in the 
scientific course. Six weeks after the commencement in 1859. 
began the tenth university year, ending June 27, 1860, with 
the graduation of George W. Bird, Leander M. Comins, 
Thomas J. Hale, John B. Parkinson, William P. Powers, Fred. 
T. Starkweather, and John E. Sutton in the classical course; 
and Milan W. Serl in the scientific course. The eleventh 
university year, ending June 26, 1861, graduated James B. 
Britton, William W. Church, S. A. Hall, John D. Parkinson, 
William 'E. Spencer, and Henry Vilas, in the classical course; 
and Farlin Q. Ball, Almerin Gillett, and Michael Leahey, in 
the scientific course. 

How fondly, in the midst of every-day life of its toils and 
its cares do we turn back to the years of our childhood and 
recall the hours of happiness then enjoyed! Akin to this is 
the recollection of early associates of those who, side by side, 
shared with us the years of a university course. It is this 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 87 

feeling- which prompts those who have gone through the cur- 
riculum of any particular institution of learning, and have 
been decorated with the honors of an alma mater, to meet 
again and awaken "the memory of joys that are passed;" and 
it was this that determined those present of the alumni of the 
University of Wisconsin, at the graduation of its eighth class, 
to form an association, that the " scattered children " of the 
institution might be " clustered into a brotherhood." There- 
fore, on the evening of commencement day, June 26, 1861, an 
" Alumni Association " was organized, with C. T. Wakeley as 
president; J. F. Smith, vice-president; J. M. Flower, corres- 
ponding secretary; W. F. Vilas, recording secretary; T. D. 
Coryell,' treasurer. The executive committee consisted of 
Sidney Foote, S. W. Botkin, H. Vilas. It was voted that the 
association should be annually addressed by an "orator" and 
"poet," in connection with the commencement exercises of the 
University. 

In their ninth annual report (1856), the regents say: "To 
provide suitable accommodations for the extended means of 
instruction and for the increasing demand 

for board and rooms, it has become a matter of strict necessity 
to proceed to the erection of the main edifice of the Univer- 
sity." It was intended that this building should crown the 
central eminence on the University grounds. It was expected 
to contain public rooms for recitation, lectures, library, cabinet, 
and apparatus; also, an astronomical observatory and a work- 
ing laboratory, as well as suitable apartments for the residence 
of two' families of the faculty, the principal dining-hall for the 
use of students, and a chapel. The regents were, certainly, 
at that date, quite modest in their estimate of the future needs 
of the institution, for they add: " All the departments in 
science, literature, and arts, and in the professional schools of 
medicine and law, will find ample accommodations in the pro- 
posed edifice." "Its completion and occupation," said they, 
in conclusion, " will constitute the true beginning of the Uni- 
versity era the point towards which our past action has been 
strictly and properly preparatory/' 



88 SKETCHES OP THE 

To enable the regents to proceed to the erection of th<- 
" main edifice," it was necessary for them to effect a loan of 
thirty-five thousand dollars, to be repaid out of the surplus 
revenue of the institution, after meeting current expenses, 
each year. The legislature was thereupon asked to pass an act 
empowering and directing the commissioners of school and 
university lands to loan, from the principal of the university 
fund, the sum just mentioned, to be applied to the building of 
the "main edifice,'" the act itself to establish a sinking fund; 
for the gradual extinction of the debt. So, by an act approved 
February 28, 1857, "the commissioners of school and univer- 
sity lands " were u authorized and directed to loan to the 
regents of the State University, from the principal of the Uni- 
versity fund, a sum not exceeding forty thousand dollars," to 
** be applied by the regents to the erection of the main edifice 
of the State University." A plan for the structure, the work 
of William Tinsley, of Indiana, was finally accepted, and the 
contract for the building awarded to James Campbell, of Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin, to cost thirty-six thousand five hundred and 
fifty dollars. This included the entire work except uecessary 
grading, the finishing of the attic story, the fitting up and 
furnishing of the public rooms, and the cost of furnaces; these, 
it was supposed would exhaust the balance of the building- 
fund, end trench on the current resources of the University. 
It was expected to complete the edifice by the first day of 
November, 1858. 

For various reasons, the construction of the building was 
greatly retarded. The necessary excavation and the laying of 
the substructure and the basement story were all that could be 
accomplished in 1857; the building was "closed in" in 1858; 
and, in 1859, " after a delay of more than one year beyond 
the time originally contemplated, and passing through and sur- 
mounting perpetual embarrassments and difficulties from the 
commencement," say the building committee, " we are enabled 
to announce, with a feeling of relief and satisfaction, that the 
central edifice is finally completed and ready for the use for 






JOHN B. PARKINSON, A. M. 

FIRST PROFESSOR ELECTED FROM THE ALUMNI. 



TNTVKHSITY OF WISCONSIN. 89 

"which it was intended." To the structure was given the name 
of University Hall. The exterior of the building presents 
rseveral features that are excellent in an architectural sense. 
'The general appearance is imposing and massive, withal very 
pleasing to the beholder. -Its commanding position adds 
anuch to its attractiveness. Its entire cost, including the 
necessary woik for its surroundings, was over sixty thousand 
dollars. 

The newly elected chancellor Dr. Barnard- was unable to 
reach Madison an-d enter upon his duties until the latter 
part of May, 1859, or to meet with the regents until the twenty- 
second of June, following. On that day, in a communica- 
tion to the board, lie recommended such measures as he 
deemed necessary and expedient. One of his sentences 
deserves to be held in lasting remembrancer "A state cannot 
have g;ood elementary schools, or an efficient university, with- 
out schools of au intermediate grade, developing and encour- 
aging a love of learning in the young, and furnishing the 
necessary preparation for the studies of the University." 

At Dr. Barnard's request, Dr. Lathrop discharged the duties 
of internal administration until the close of the term the end- 
ing of the ninth university year when, on commencement day, 
July 27, 1859, the former was, in pmsence of the state 
officers, the judges of the supreme court, the regents, profess- 
ors and students of the University, the regents of the normal 
schools, the officers and members of the state teachers 1 associ^ 
ation, and a large concourse of the friends of the institution, 
inducted into office. An address was delivered by Carl Schurx 
on part of the regents, and by Julius T. Clark, on behalf of 
the normal board. An inaugural address, also, was made by 
Dr. Barnard. The new administration began under favorable 
auspices and much was anticipated from the change. 

In calling Dr. Barnard to the office of chancellor, the 
regents did so under an arrangement with the board of regents 
of normal schools, by virtue of which he was also to act as the 
general agent for the latter. Under a belief that the details 



90 SKETCHKS OF THK 

of internal administration could be safely intrusted, for a 
period at least, to other hands, and actuated by an earnest 
desire to make the University, in the most conspicuous and 
the most practical manner, a part of the general public school 
system of the state, the regents of the University embraced 
what seemed to them a fortunate opportunity to repose the 
chief executive powers of the institution in the same hands 
which were to guide the new movement for the elevation of 
common schools of Wisconsin. 

Under the ordinance of 1858, the regents established 
an '" instructorship '" in book-keeping and commercial cal- 
culations, and elected as instructor therein David H. 
Tullis. This was in reality the transfer of "' Bacon's Commercial 
College," which had been for two years in successful operation 
in Madison, Wisconsin, to the University; hence the appear- 
ance of Mr. Tullis' name in the catalogue of 1858 as in- 
structor in book-keeping and commercial calculations, and 
its recurrence thereafter, annually, for six years, when the 
*' instructorship " was laid aside. 

In 1859, Prof. O. M. Conover was in charge of the high 
school in Madison. Arrangements were made (which con- 
tinued two years) to merge the preparatory school in the Uni- 
versity into the one under his instruction; therefore, upon the 
catalogues of 1859 and 1860, his name appears as "principal 
of preparatory department in public high school.'' 

On the tenth day of February, 1860, Dr. Barnard, as agent 
of the board of regents of normal schools, issued a circular 
wherein he arranged for the holding of several normal insti- 
tutes in the state. One of these commenced Wednes- 
day morning. April 11, of that year, at Madison, in connection 
with the University. During its continuance of ten weeks, 
there were fifty-nine members in attendance, of whom thirty 
were ladies, who were the first to gain admission to the insti- 
tution. They were Martha A. Chamberlain, Mary A. Chamber- 
lain, Hannah ,1. Crocker, Frances J. Duncan, Hennetta Davh, 
M. M. Luness, Kate Kavenaugh. Louisa Larkin, Julietta S. 



UNIVERSITY- OF WISCONSIN. 

Mann, Mary E. Peaslee, Fannie 0. Quiner, Rosa Rogers, H- 
A. Sweeney, Sarah E. Farner, Helen J. Tripp, Lydia Sharp, 
Henrietta I. Love well, Mrs. E. R. Hooker, Josephine M. Rice, 
Laura D. Barren, Hattie A. Hough, Emily C. Quiner, Amanda 
Wright, Sophia O. Smith, Lotta Lattimer, Hattie Vroman, L, 
M. Powley, R. J. Spooner, M. M, Quiner, and Lucy L. Cowes. 
Normal instruction in the University was not again attempted 
until the organization of the normal department in 1863, and 
the election of Charles H. Allen to a professorship therein. 

On the sixteenth day of January, 1861, the resignation of 
Chancellor Barnard, which had been tendered the board at 
their annual meeting in June, 1860, was formally accepted. 
During his administration, his labors, although interrupted by ill 
health, were, to the cause of popular education in the state at 
large, of great importance. A series of measures, planned 
and executed largely by him, produced beneficial results ex- 
tending " to almost every school district in Wisconsin." Indi- 
rectly, therefore, the work of Dr. Barnard while chancellor 
was of value to the institution; for, it may be assumed as a 
fact, that whatever tends to elevate the standard of common 
schools in the state, also tends to the prosperity and efficiency 
of the University. 

Meanwhile, Prof, Sterling discharged the duties of chancellor, 
so far as they appertained to the internal affairs of the institu- 
tion, performing them " with energy, fidelity, and success." At 
the end of the eleventh university year, the institution having 
no chancellor, the instructional force consisted of John W. 
Sterling, dean of the faculty and professor of mathematics and 
natural philosophy; Daniel Read, professor of mental, ethical, 
and political science, rhetoric and English literature; Ezra S. 
Carr, professor of chemistry and natural philosophy; James D. 
Butler, professor of ancient languages and literature; John P. 
Fuchs, professor of modern languages and literature; J. B. 
Parkinson, tutor; and David H. Tullis, instructor in commer- 
cial calculations and book-keeping. By this it will be seen 
that the working force of the University was at its minimum. 



SKETCHES OF THE 

This, and the reduction of expenses to the lowest possible 
figure, were consequent upon the breaking out of the rebellion, 
which tended to distract public attention from educational 
matters, and to reduce the number of students in the insti- 
tution. 

In the year 1867, John Barber Parkinson, A. M., was- 
elected to the chair of mathematics in the University. He 
was born near Edwardsville, Madison county, Illinois, April 
11, 1834. In 1836, his parents removed to Wisconsin and 
.settled upon a farm near Mineral Point, where the son re- 
ceived only such advantages for an education as the newly set- 
tled country afforded. After becoming well grounded in the 
primary branches, he entered, at the age of sixteen, the pre- 
paratory department of Beloit college, at Beloit, Wisconsin, 
where he continued nearly two years. In the spring of 1852, 
his father having fitted out an expedition for an over-land trip 
to California, he was placed in charge of it. After five months 
.spent ou the plains and three years in the mines of Califor- 
nia, he returned home. 

In 1856, he entered the University of Wisconsin, where, 
four years afterward, he graduated with the highest honors of 
his class. Subsequently, at the beginning of the winter term of 
the eleventh university year (1860-61), he was appointed tutor 
by the regents, continuing in that office until the middle of the 
first term of the next university year, when he resigned, to 
accept the office of superintendent of schools of La Fayette 
county, Wisconsin, to which he had been almost unanimously 
elected. In 1864, the state superintendent of public instruc- 
tion having resigned, Prof. Parkinson was nominated by the 
democratic state central committee to fill the vacancy; but, 
at the ensuing election, he was defeated, as the republi- 
can party, at that date, was largely in the ascendency in Wis- 
consin. He was the regular nominee of the democrats in 1865, 
Jor the same office, but was again unsuccessful for the same 
cause. 

In 1866, under the law reconstructing the University, he was 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 93 

appointed by the governor one of its regents. This posi- 
tion he held one year, when he was elected, as before men- 
tioned, to the professorship of mathematics in the institution, 
holding that office and having, for most of the time, charge 
of the department of civil polity and political economy until 
the spring of 1873, when his chair was changed to that of 
civil polity and international law. He continued his connec- 
tion with the University the first of its graduates elected 
to a full professorship down to the year 1874, when he 
resigned. 

In 1871, Prof. Parkinson purchased a fourth interest in the 
Madison .Democrat and for a short time was upon its editorial 
staff. During the same year, he was chosen chairman of the 
democratic state central committee. Both these positions he 
resigned at the close of that year. Upon his resignation as 
professor in the University, he resumed his place as one of 
the editors of the Madison Democrat. He continued in that 
relation until 1876, when he was again elected to the chair of 
civil polity and international law in the University, which 
office he still occupies. During the same year (1876), he 
was chosen president of the Wisconsin state board of centen- 
nial managers. 

Prof. Parkinson's style of writing is clear and forcible, simple 
and concise. It exhibits pruning and trimming character- 
istics of culture. His reasoning is apt to be correct; and it is 
enforced with a vigor quite refreshing to the reader. Although 
he has not written much, he has certainly written well. He is 
free from pedantry and from a pompous building up of words, 
overwhelming the sense. His periods are usually short; his 
thoughts, lucid; his conclusions, convincing. Take this para- 
graph from the first of a series of excellent papers which he 
has published upon " Political Economy and some of its Per- 
plexities:" 

" Political Economy has nothing to do with questions of 
moral right, but rests back upon the expedient and the useful. 
It favors morality, but does so because morality favors pro- 



94 SKETCHES OF THE 

duction. It favors honesty because honesty is favorable to 
exchange, and is, in every sense, the best policy. Moral 
science appeals to an enlightened conscience, and certain con- 
duct is approved because it is right, or disapproved because 
it is wrong, and for these reasons only. Political economy 
appeals to an intelligent self-interest; and exchanges go on be- 
cause they are mutually profitable, and for no other reason." 

In a very able paper read before the Wisconsin state agri- 
cultural convention, in February, 1873, on " Production and 
Consumption, Demand and Supply," he said: 

" While human society shall last, and human nature remain 
unchanged, there will always be grievances to meet and 
wrongs to be righted. No age nor nation has ever yet escaped 
this demand upon it, and none need hope to do so. The same 
impulses and imperfections in human nature which made the 
necessity for law and government in the beginning, still exist; 
and every step in the march of civilization, like a new turn of 
the kaleidoscope, presents a new phase of relationships and 
dependencies. To adjust these properly, they must be under- 
stood; to study them aright, prejudice and passion must give 
way to sober reason and sound judgment." This is as fault- 
less in style as it is profound in thought. 

Prof. Parkinson has prepared courses of lectures upon inter- 
national law and English constitutional law; also partial courses 
upon American constitutional law and political economy. 
None of these have been published. His first lecture on inter- 
national law, has this logical and well-written beginning: 

" Man is by nature a social being. God willed society and 
the state. Man's inclinations and desires, physical and moral, 
irresistibly impel him to associate with his kind. Not only is 
society necessary for his highest and most perfect develop- 
ment, but necessary for the very existence of the race. But 
society, whether savage or civilized, necessitates some sort of 
government. Man is so constituted as to feel more intensely 
that which affects him directly than that which affects him 
indirectly. If this principle of man's nature were not checked 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 95 

bv some controlling power, it would lead to conflict between 
"individuals and to general discord and confusion. This con- 
trolling power, wherever vested, and hj whomsoever exer- 
cised, is government. 

"Government, then, is necessary for the existence of society; 
soc'ety, for the existence of man and for the perfection of his 
faculties. Government had its origin in the two-fold constitu- 
tion of man's nature, his sympathetic or social instincts, con- 
stituting the remote, and his individual or selfish impulses, the 
direct or proximate occasion. But human governments must 
he administered by men- The same principles of our nature 
that make it necessary for government to exist, also make it 
necessary to place restraints upon the agents who administer it. 
Hence the necessity of a constitution. As government stands 
to society, so constitution stands to government. As the end 
for which society is organized would be defeated without gov- 
ernment, so that for which government is established would be 
defeated without some sort of constitution. Government 
seems rather of God's ordination, and constitution of man's 
contrivance. Now, as God has willed the mutual intercourse 
of individuals, so has he willed the mutual intercourse of 
independent states. As the individual attains h ; s highest 
development through the aid of society and the state, so the 
state itself, which is but an organized aggregate of individuals, 
may attain its highest development, and accomplish most 
nearly the end of its existence, through the instrumentality of 
the society of the nations. But the same tendencies which 
make government necessary to control individuals in their 
social and business relations, also necessitate some restraint 
upon independent states in their intercourse with each other. 
The instrumentality through which this restraint is exercised 
is international law." 

Prof. Parkinson is a forcible speaker and a successful in- 
structor. His clearness in illustration and earnestness of man- 
ner, give to his efforts as a teacher not only a happy effect, 
but a distinctive character. 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER X. 

TWELFTH, THIRTEENTH, AND FOURTEENTH UNIVERSITY YEARS 
ORGANIZATION OF A MILITARY COMPANY IN THE UNIVER- 
SITY THE UNIVERSITY DURING THE WAR REOPENING OF 

THE NORMAL DEPARTMENT ADMISSION OF LADIES FIF- 
TEENTH UNIVERSITY YEAR EX OFFICIO AND OTHER REGENTS 

A DARK HOUR. 

On the twenty-eighth of August, 1861, began the twelfth 
year of the University of Wisconsin. It ended June 25, 1862, 
with the graduation of Michael Leahey in the classical course, 
and Isaac N. Stewart in the scientific course. An oration was 
delivered before the alumni association by C. T. Wakelev, of 
the class of 1854. Subject: "The Heroes of the War." A 
poem was read by R. W. Hubbell, of the class of 1858, enti- 
tled, "Fit or Unfit." The thirteenth university year com- 
menced the twenty-seventh of August, 1862, and ended June 
24, 1863. There were graduated, Milton S. Griswold and 
Levi M. Vilas, in the classical course; Pitt Cravath and Frank 
Waterman, in the scientific course. The oration before the 
alumni association was delivered by J. M. Flower, of the class 
of 1856, and W. W. Church, of the class of 1861, read the 
poem. The twenty-sixth of August, 1863, was the beginning 
of the fourteenth university year; its ending, the twenty-fifth 
of June, 1864, with the graduation, in the classical course, of 
James L. High and W. I. Wallace; in the scientific course, of 
E. M. Congar, A. H. Salisbury and John C. Spooner. All the 
members of the senior class having, with one exception, left 
the state as volunteers, there were no commencement exer- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 97 

cises. The president of the board of regents and the dean of 
the faculty, afterward prepared diplomas and delivered them 
to the graduates. 

A military company was organized among the students of 
the University at the beginning of the year 1861 the germ 
of the present military department. "All parties will agree," 
said the faculty, in a communication to the regents, "that the 
state University ought to be, from time to time, so modified as 
best to meet the varying exigencies of the commonwealth whose 
name it bears. Nor are Milton's words now less true than in 
the midst of that great English rebellion, when he declared 
that ' education, if complete and generous, must fit a man to 
perform justly, skilfully and magnanimously, all the offices of 
war no less than of peace.' Indeed, no state has ever, for a 
long period, neglected military culture." Voluntary military 
drill was kept up by all the students through two-thirds of the 
year; and in their report of the next year, the faculty say that, 
" besides ennabling most who have left us for the army to start 
as officers, it has heightened the physical vigor of all who have 
shared in it, and thus given a sympathetic aid to true mental 
efforts." 

Although the catalogue of the University for the year end- 
ing June 26, 1861, does not mention the names of any students 
as having entered the army of the United States, seventeen, at 
least, of the eleventh university year (1860-61), were, at its 
expiration, serving their country "upon the tented field:" G. 
W. Ashmore, James Bull, John A. Bull, C. M. Campbell, Ed- 
win Coe, J. W. Curtis, B. R. Ellis, E. C. Hungerford, M. 
Leahey, E. G. Miller, William Noble, Otis Remick, S. S. 
Rockwood, P. Norcross, H. 1). Smith, H. Vilas, and W. A. 
Wyse. Of these, Ashmore, James Bull, Campbell, Miller, 
Norcross, Remick, Smith, and Wyse were the first to enlist, 
joining the first company organized in Madison, Wisconsin, 
for the three months' service. These were the patriots of the 
University, who first " went forth into the bloody struggle of 
those historic years." By the end of the next university year, 



5f SKETCHES OF THE 

the number of enlistments among the students had largely in- 
creased. Before the close of the war, not far from one hun- 
dred had served in the army, being about one-third of the 
whole number connected with the institution during that 
period. 

Said the regents of the University in their report for the 
fiscal year ending the thirtieth of September, 1863: "The 
war, which has called away from the state so large a propor- 
tion of our enterprising young men, who, if at home, would be 
found in seminaries of learning, has continued to affect un- 
favorably the attendance upon the college courses of study." 
They added what seems now almost a prophecy: "When the 
final triumph of the government and the conclusive suppres- 
sion of rebellion shall again give peace to the country, there is 
reason to believe that multitudes of young men HOW in the 
army will be found seeking the benefits of a liberal education. 
It will be the duty and the aim of the board, in the meantime, 
to place and keep the University in such a condition as will 
enable it to do its part of the work which will then devolve 
upon the higher institutions of learning." 

By the end of June, 1862, seventeen of the alumni of the 
University there were forty-one in all had joined the Union 
forces to war against secession: B. C. Slaughter, of the class 
of 1856; S. W. Botkin, T. D. Coryell, and Charles Fan-child, 
of the class of 1857; R. W. Hubbell and W. F. Vilas, of the 
class of 1858; A. C. Botkin, S. Fallows, and Edwin Marsh, of 
the class of 1859; W. P. Powers, J. E. Sutton, L. M. Comins, 
and F. T. Starkweather, of the class of 1860; H. Vilas, W. 
W. Church, A. Gillett, and M. Leahey, of the class of 1861; 
and the last named, also of the class of 1862. At the close of 
the war, the whole number of graduates, excluding the class 
of 1865, was fifty. Of these, twenty-five had joined the 
army. Just one- half, therefore, of the alumni of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin took part in that terrible conflict of arms 
between the two sections of our country. 

The University was represented, of course, on many battle- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 99 

fields during the war. Wherever their lots were cast, her sons 
reflected honor upon the institution. Some rose to high posi- 
tions; some sank to early and distant graves. "They all 
fought the good fight; they kept the faith." 

When, in 1855, the normal department the second depart- 
ment in the University the one defined in the organic act as 
that of "the theory and practice of elementary instruction" 
was created by the regents, and Prof. Read placed in charge 
thereof, it was something new as a university course; at least, 
in the University of Wisconsin. The design was " to aid, en- 
courage, and instruct teachers, and to awaken in all who might 
attend the course a deeper interest in that greatest work of 
human society, the proper education of its youth." But the 
course was largely a subsidiary one; and, as ladies, who were 
now rapidly coming to the front as teachers, were wholly ex- 
cluded therefrom, it naturally languished until the change in 
the administration of the institution, when it was given up. 
This was done, however, with the expectation of its being 
renewed under more favorable auspices by Dr. Barnard. The 
latter, as has been shown, got no farther than ten weeks' nor- 
mal instruction; but the precedent was established, during 
those weeks, of allowing lad'.es within the walls of the Uni- 
versity. 

Before the beginning of the spring term of 1863, the board 
of regents, with the cordial cooperation of the faculty, made 
provisions for the reopening of the normal department. Prof. 
Charles H. Allen, before that time, as already mentioned, an 
agent of the board of regents of normal schools in Wisconsin, 
was placed at the head of the newly organized department. 
Instruction began on the sixteenth day of March, 1863, a 
somewhat memorable day in the annals of the University; for, 
what had before been done transiently, it was now proposed to 
do permanently. To the disgust of a few to the pleasure of 
many ladies were admitted in the department, on equal term* 
with gentlemen; and lectures in the university courses upon 
chemistry, geology, botany, mechanical philosophy, and Eng- 
lish literature were free to all. What a daring innovation! 



100 SKETCHES OF THE 

Says one in after years, who, at the opening of the new 
department, was in the junior class of the regular college 
course: "In due time came the sixteenth of March, in the 
year of grace, 1863; and with it came, alas, the normals! 
They came like an army with banners, conquering and to con- 
quer; they came with bewitching curls, and dimpled cheeks, 
and flowing robes, and all the panoply of feminine adornment; 
and, worst of all, they came to stay!"* During the first term, 
they numbered seventy-six. " The great aim of the depart- 
ment," said the regents, " will be to fit teachers for their ardu- 
ous labor;" but they wisely added: "The doors will not be 
closed to any who desire, by close application, to secure thor- 
ough scholarship." After two terms of the " normal," the 
regents said: "The result thus far has abundantly established 
the practicability and usefulness of the department, and also 
that the advantages offered will be duly appreciated by those 
seeking to become teachers or thorough scholars." 

A regular course had been arranged for the normal depart- 
ment. It included a junior year, a middle year, and a senior 
year, each of which consisted of three terms. There were 
taught mathematics, language, natural science, history, and 
philosophy. Instruction in the theory and practice of teach- 
ing, including object lessons, oral instruction, and other 
branches, was given by lectures and from reference books in 
the normal library, throughout the course. In the senior year, 
the pupils were thoroughly reviewed in educational history. 
General exercises in reading, orthography, writing, declama- 
tion, and recitation were continued as found necessary. Stu- 
dents completing satisfactorily the course in the normal depart- 
ment were to receive a diploma of graduation under the seal 
of the University. 

During the thirteenth university year ending June 24, 1863, 
there were one hundred and eleven students in the new depart- 

*J. L. High, A. M. Vide his oration " The University during the 
War,'' in daily Madison papers of June 20, 1877, delivered at the 
alurnni anniversary of that year. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 101 

inent. The fourteenth university year, ending June 22, 1864, 
had sixty present pursuing the regular normal course, all of 
whom were ladies, yet the University survived! After the 
organization of this department and at the close of the thir- 
teenth university year (June 24, 1863), the instructional torce 
of the institution was the same as last mentioned, except that, 
during the first term of the twelfth university year (1861-2), 
John D. Parkinson was elected tutor in place of John B. Par- 
kinson resigned, and there had been added Charles H. Allen 
as professor of normal instruction and Miss Anna W. Moody 
as preceptress in the normal department. The latter was suc- 
ceeded by Miss M. S. Merrille, with Miss Clarissa L. Ware as 
assistant. ' 

The fifteenth university year began August 31, 1864, and 
closed June 28, 1865, with the graduation in the classical 
course, of James Byrne and Philip Stein; in the scientific 
course, of J. M. Jones, George H. Pradt, Joseph Dwight 
Tredway, and Charles H. Vilas. There were also six graduates 
in the normal course: Mary A. Allen, Clara J. Chamberlain, 
Annie E. Chamberlain, Hettie M. Rusk, Lydia Sharp, and 
Annie E. Taylor. These were the first lady graduates of the 
University of Wisconsin. The oration before the alumni asso- 
ciation was delivered by Sidney Foote, of the class of 1856. 
A poem was read by J. B. Parkinson, of the class of 1860. 
During the fourteenth and fifteenth university years, Orson V. 
Tousley held the office of principal of the preparatory school. 
The commencement of the sixteenth university year was on 
the thirtieth of August, 1865; its ending, the twenty-seventh 
of June, 1866. There were graduated in the classical course, 
James A. Blake, Arthur Peck; in the scientific, Frederick 
Scheiber, Wm. H. Spencer, John A. Spencer. In the normal 
course, Ellen Byrne, Abbie Gilbert, Anna J. Pickard, May B. 
Read, Agnes J. Sawyer, and Maggie J. Spears received diplo- 
mas from the regents. William F. Vilas, of the class of 1858, 
delivered the oration, and Pitt Cravath, of the class of 1863, 
read the poem, before the alumni association. 



102 SKETCHES OF THE 

By an act of the legislature of Wisconsin, approved Feb- 
ruary 24, 1854, the state superintendent of public instruction 
became, by virtue of his office, one of the regents of the Uni- 
versity. The position was then held by H. A. Wright, who 
continued in that office until the twenty-seventh of May, 1855, 
when he died. On the eighteenth of June following, A. C. 
Barry was appointed by the governor as Wright's successor, 
holding the position under the appointment and by election, 
until the close of 1857. The next superintendent of public 
instruction and ex officio regent was L. C. Draper, who con- 
tinued in office during 1858 and the following year. Draper's 
successor was .1. L. Pickard, who held the position from the 
commencement of 1860, to September 30, 1864, when he 
resigned. J. G. McMynn, the successor of Pickard, was by 
virtue of his office, a member of the board from October 1, 
1864, to the middle of April, 1866, when the law of 1854 was 
repealed. The secretary of state, also, upon the taking effect 
of the before mentioned act, became ex officio a regent of the 
University. The position was then held by Alex. T. Gray. 
D. W. Jones was the incumbent for 1856 and the three fol- 
lowing years; L. P. Harvey, for 1860 and three years subse- 
quent thereto; Lucius Fairchild, for 1864 and 1865. Thomas 
S. Allen, as successor of the latter, was e.r officio regent until 
the repeal of the law. Besides the state superintendent of 
public instruction and the secretary of state, there were two 
other ex officio members chancellors of the University, as 
already noticed. These \>ere John H. Lathrop and Henry 
Barnard. They were, of course, regents only so long as they 
retained the office of chancellor. 

Tn addition to the regents ex officio, there were, from the 
close of 1851 to the middle of April, 1866, beside those hold- 
ing over from previous years, thirty-one, who were either 
elected by the legislature, or appointed by the governor to 
fill vacancies. They were Chauncy Abbott, L. B. Vilas, J. K. 
Williams, J. P. Atwood, Charles Dunn, E. Wakeley, Nelson 
Dewey, E. M. Hunter, Beriah Brown, A. L. Castleman, S. .L. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 103 

Rose, E. S. Carr, H. A. Tenney, O. M. Conover, M. M. Davis, 
H. C. Hobart, Carl Schur/, B. E. Hutchinson, Theodore Pren- 
tlss, Edward Salomon, John W. Stewart, M. Frank, H. D. 
Ban-on, Geo. B. Eastman, D. Worthington, G. W. Ha/elton, 
H. S. Magoon, D. H. Muller, H. P. Strong, and Charles Thayer. 
By an act approved February 14, 1865, the regents were 
entitled to receive the same milaege as members of the legisla- 
ture, for every mile traveled in going to and returning from 
the place of their annual meeting, provided the amount ol 
mileage paid to any one of the board should not exceed fifty 
dollars in one year; but this law was amended by an act 
approved April 12, 18GG, allowing each regent the actual 
amount of his expenses in traveling to, and attendance upon 
all their meetings, or incurred in the performance of any duty 
connected with the University, if under the direction of the 
board. 

The end of the sixteenth university year (I860), brought 
with it a radical change in the University of Wisconsin. The" 
institution had thus far " dragged its slow length alone:," with- 
out one dollar having been appropriated by the state for its 
support. The fund upon which it had hitherto depended for 
existence, had, from time to time, been diminished by paying 
out, in all, over ten thousand dollars as expenses for taking 
care of its lands and keeping an account of its finances. In 
addition to this, an act was passed in 1862 "to appropriate 
from the capital of the university fund a sufficient sum to pav 
the debts against the institution;" that is to say, the board of 
regents was " authorized to apply a sufficient sum of the prin- 
cipal of the university fund to pay any and all indebtedness" 
before that time "created under any law" of the state for the 
erection of any of the buildings of the University. Under 
the provisions of this act, one-half of the capital of the insti- 
tution "was sunk into oblivion;" at least, one-half of the uni- 
versity fund, upon the interest of which the life of the institu- 
tion depended, disappeared under this statutory enactment. 
For the first university year (ending in 1851), the income was, 



104 SKETCHES OF THE 

in round numbers, nineteen thousand dollars; for the eleventh 
(ending in 1861), thirteen thousand; for the sixteenth (ending 
in 1866), less than twelve thousand. But just here, at this 
dark hour of its history of its prospects the day dawned. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE CONGRESSIONAL AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE ACT OF 1862 

ADDITIONAL LAND GRANT TO THE UNIVERSITY LEGISLATIVE 

ACT OF 1866, REORGANIZING AND ENLARGING THE UNIVER- 
SITY PROF. W. W. DANIELLS. 

On the second day of July, 1862, an act of congress was 
approved, donating public lands to the several states and ter- 
ritories which might provide colleges for the benefit of agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts. This is generally known as 
the congressional agricultural college act. By the provisions 
of this law, there was granted to the several states for the pur- 
pose of creating a perpetual fund, the capital of which should 
remain forever undirninished, except in certain cases, and the 
interest of which should be inviolably appropriated by each 
state which might take and claim the benefit of the act, an 
amount of public land to be apportioned to each sta.te, equal 
to thirty thousand acres for each senator and representative 
in congress to which the states were respectively entitled by 
the apportionment under the census of 1860, for the endow- 
ment, support, and maintenance 'of at least one college where 
the leading object should be, without excluding other scien- 
tific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to 
teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture 
and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of 
the states might respectively prescribe, in order to promote 
the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in 
the several pursuits and professions in life. 

As Wisconsin, at the date of the approval of this act, had 



106 SKETCHES OF THE 

two senators and six representatives in congress, she was en- 
titled to two hundred and forty thousand acres of the public 
land within her limits, not otherwise appropriated. By an act 
of the legislature approved April 2, 1863, " the lands, rights, 
powers, and privileges granted to and conferred upon the 
state," by the law of congress before mentioned, were accept- 
ed "upon the 'terms, conditions, and restrictions" contained 
therein. So it was, that another and larger trust than the two 
previous ones giving four townships of land, was conferred 
upon Wisconsin. The first thing to be accomplished was the 
selection of the lands. The governor was authorized and re- 
quired to appoint two commissioners for that purpose. When 
the lands were selected, the governor was immediately to take 
measures to have the selection approved by the secretary of 
the interior, and certified to the state of Wisconsin. The 
whole two hundred and forty thousand acres were located in 
the counties of Chippewa, Clark, Dunn, Marathon, Oconto, 
Polk and Shavvano. Now that the state was in possession of 
this munificent gift, the question to be determined by the ben- 
eficiary, was, how shall the trust be best executed? It was 
answered by adding the income of the fund to be derived from 
the sales of these lands to the endowment of the University 
of Wisconsin. 

On the twelfth day of April, 1866, was approved " an act to 
reorganize and enlarge the University of Wisconsin, and to 
authorize the county of Dane to issue bonds in aid thereof." It 
was declared that, to provide the means of acquiring a thorough 
knowledge of the various branches of learning connected with 
the scientific, industrial, and professional pursuits, should be 
the object of the institution, -which should consist of a college 
of arts, a college of letters, and such professional and other 
colleges as from time to time might be added thereto or con- 
nected therewith. 

It was provided that the college of arts should embrace 
courses of instruction in the mathematical, physical, and nat- 
ural sciences, with their applications to the industrial arts, 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 107 

such as agriculture, mechanics and engineering, mining and 
metallurgy, manufactures, architecture, and commerce, in such 
branches included in the college of letters as should be neces- 
sary to a proper fitness of the pupils in the scientific and prac- 
tical courses for their chosen pursuits, and in military tactics. 
As soon as the income of the institution should allow of it, the 
courses in the sciences and their application to the practical 
arts, in such order as the wants of the public should seem to 
require, were to be expanded into distinct colleges of the 
University, each with its own faculty and appropriate title. 

Another provision of the act made the college of letters to 
be coexistent with the college of arts, and declared that it 
should embrace a liberal course of instruction in languages, 
literature, and philosophy, together with such courses or parts 
of courses in the college of arts, as the authorities in the Uni- 
versity should prescribe. The institution, in all its depart- 
ments and colleges, was thrown open alike to male and female 
students; and all able-bodied male students, in whatever col- 
lege, should receive instruction and discipline in military tac- 
tics, the requisite arms for which were to be furnished by the 
state. 

The government of the Univeisity was vested in a board of 
regents, to consist of fifteen members, to be appointed by the 
governor, two from each congressional district in the state, and 
three from the state at large. The regents were to have 
power, and it was made their duty, to enact laws for the gov- 
ernment of the University in all its branches; to elect a presi- 
dent of the institution, and the requisite number of professors, 
instructors, officers, and employes, and to fix their salaries; 
also to determine the term of office of each, and the moral and 
educational qualification of applicants for admission to the 
various courses of instruction. But no instruction, either sec- 
tarian in religion, or partisan in politics, was ever to be allowed 
in any department; and no sectarian or partisan test should 
ever be allowed or exercised in the appointment of regents, or 
in the election of professors, teachers, or other officers, or in 



108 SKETCHES OF THE 

the admission of students to the institution, or for any purpose 
whatever. 

The president of the University was made president of the 
several faculties, and the executive head of the institution, in 
all its departments. The immediate government of each col- 
lege was intrusted to its faculty; but to the regents was given 
power to regulate the courses of instruction, and to prescribe 
the authorities used therein, and also to confer such degrees 
and grant such diplomas as are usual in universities, or as 
they might think appropriate. 

For the endowment and support of the University, there 
was appropriated not only the income of the fund to be derived 
from the agricultural college lands, as before mentioned, but 
the income of the University fund proper, arising out of the 
sales of university lands previously donated by the general 
government, and all such contributions as might be derived 
from public or private bounty. 

The act also provided that immediately upon the organiza- 
tion of the new board of regents, arrangements should be 
made for securing, without expense to the state, or to the 
funds of the University, not less than two hundred acres of 
suitable lands, including the university grounds, for an experi- 
mental farm. The regents were required to make such im- 
provements thereon as would render it available for experi- 
mental and instructional purposes, in connection with the 
agricultural course in the college of arts. It was thus, that, so 
far as legislation alone could accomplish it, the University of 
Wisconsin was lifted out of the " academic rut,' 1 where it had 
been struggling for existence during the previous sixteen 
years, and placed upon an enlarged basis commensurate with 
the true idea of what the leading institution of learning in a 
state should be. The credit of drafting the bill (the main 
features of. which have just been given) which became a law, 
and is still, to a great extent, in force, is due largely, if not 
entirely, to John W. Hoyt, now governor of Wyoming ter- 
ritory. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 109 

William Willard Daniells, M. S., was called to the chair 
of agriculture, in the University, in 1868. He was born in 
West Bloomfield, Oakland county, Michigan, March 10, 1840, 
residing afterward with his parents in Detroit, and later at 
Wacousta in the same state. His early education was obtained 
in the schools of those places and at a private academy in Lan- 
sing, where, in 1860, he entered the Michigan agricultural col- 
lege, graduating, in 1864, with the degree of bachelor of sci- 
ence, and receiving three years afterward, that of master of 
science. Immediately upon his graduation, he was chosen an 
assistant to the professor of chemistry in that institution, begin- 
ning his work at once as laboratory instructor. 

Prof. Daniells spent a portion of the year 1866 and the two 
following years in the chemical laboratory of the Lawrence 
scientific school of Harvard university then a special training 
school for chemists under the instruction of Dr. Wolcott 
Gibbs. In 1867, he was chosen an assistant professor of chem- 
istry in the Michigan agricultural college, but performed no 
work under that appointment; for, in February of the next 
year (being still at Cambridge), he was elected, as before men- 
tioned, to the professorship of agriculture in the University of 
Wisconsin, entering immediately upon the duties of his 
office. In 1869, his chair was changed to that of analytical 
chemistry and agriculture; and, in 1875, to that of chemistry 
and agriculture, which position he now occupies. 

Upon assuming the chair of agriculture in the University, 
in February, 1868, Prof. Daniells made a plan for converting 
the basement of the south wing of university hall the only 
available place into a chemical laboratory. The plan was 
accepted and the room fitted up during the following summer 
vacation. This was the first chemical laboratory the institu- 
tion possessed; indeed, the first laboratory of any kind estab- 
lished therein. Science-teaching had, before that time, been 
only lecture-room instruction. During the spring of 1868, 
before the completion of the laboratory, Prof. Daniells gave 
laboratory instruction in chemistry daily to a single student, 



110 SKETCHES OF THE 

using an old carpenter's work-bench for a laboratory table, in 
a room which was literally a cellar, with a board floor. (Con- 
trast that with the magnificent arrangements in science hall, of 
to-day!) The completion of the laboratory before the opening 
of the fall term of 1868, gave comparatively comfortable 
quarters for laboratory instruction in chemistry. The study, 
however, for some years after, was only elective; students who 
desired pursuing it, being compelled to take it in addition to 
their other required studies. The building up .of the depart- 
ment of chemistry from the small beginning mentioned, to its 
present advanced condition, has been Prof. Daniells' most 
useful and important work in the University. 

No observations of meteorological phenomena were being 
taken in Madison upon the arrival of Prof. Daniells in the city 
in 1868. Believing that the University of Wisconsin should 
at least observe and record daily such natural phenomena as 
pertained to the weather, he asked and obtained permission to 
take meteorological observations at the institution. These 
were continued three times daily under his charge up to Octo- 
ber, 1878, when a United States signal service station was 
established in Madison. The observations have been pub- 
lished in the annual reports of the board of regents and are 
a valuable series of papers. 

In 1873, Prof. Daniells received the appointment of chemist 
to the state geological survey, and during its continuance he did 
much the larger proportion of its mineral analyses and assays. 
Such work, although it makes little showing upon the printed 
page, requires much time-and skill to accomplish. As profess- 
or of agriculture in the University, he has prepared a series 
of reports of experiments performed upon the University farm. 
These have been published in the annual reports of the board 
of regents, beginning with that of 1868, and have proved 
interesting and valuable to the agricultural interests of Wis- 

O o 

consin. 

Of the public addresses of Prof. Daniells, there may be 
mentioned as especially worthy of commendation, "The 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. Ill 

Chemistry of Bread Making," published in the transactions of 
the Wisconsin state agricultural society for 1870; "Some of 
the Relations of Science to Agriculture," delivered before an 
agricultural convention in Madison, Wisconsin, 1871; "Laws 
of Heredity, Applied to the Improvement of Dairy Cows," 
before the northwestern dairymen's association, at Elgin, 
Illinois, January 17, 1872; "Some of the Wants of American 
Farmers," Monroe coanty (Wisconsin) fair, same year; "The 
Conservation of Forces, Applied to the Feeding, Watering, 
and Sheltering cf Farm Stock," northwestern dairymen's 
association, January, 1873; "Industrial Education," before an 
agricultural convention, Madison, 1873; "Hard Times a 
Cause and a Remedy," state fair, Milwaukee, September 8, 
1874; "Objects and Methods of Soil Cultivation," state agri- 
cultural convention of Wisconsin, 1875; "Chemical Principles 
of Stock-feeding," Wisconsin dairymen's association, January, 
1877; "Health in Farmer's Homes," state agricultural con- 
vention of Wisconsin, 1878. Most of these addresses, as in- 
dicated by their titles, treated of the applications of science 
to agriculture. 

Prof. Daniells is a member of the Wisconsin academy of 
sciences, arts, and letters; he has read before it several papers 
of marked ability; one, on the "Results of the Analysis of 
Certain Ores and Minerals;" another, on the "Absorption of 
Arsenic by the Human Liver;" a third, on the " Results of the 
Analyses of Catlinite [pipe stone], from Minnesota and Wis- 
consin; and a fourth, on the "Retardation of the Wind in the 
Wisconsin Tornadoes of May 23, 1878." Prof. Daniells has 
also written an able and interesting pap.M 1 on these tornadoes, 
which is published in the report of the regents of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin for 1878. Accompanying these "Investiga- 
tions" is an accurate map of the tracks of the wind. Three 
plates illustrate the subject. He is also the author of an ex- 
cellent article on "Agriculture in Wisconsin," written for 
Snyder, Van Vechten, and company's historical atlas of the 
state, published in 1878. 



112 SKETCHES OF THE 

Though literature is not the chosen field of Prof. Daniells, 
and though he has written no books, still, in putting his 
thoughts on paper, he has a way a style that is pleasing and 
effective. Sometimes he reaches the picturesque; as, for ex- 
ample, in this contrast between farmino- fifty vears aax> and 

i O ? w 

now: 

" Fifty years ago, when the wants of all were fewer than 
they now are; when the farmer threshed his grain with a flail; 
when he mended and often made the shoes for the family; 
when the wife spun the flax and wool, wove the fabric, and 
made their clothing; when reapers and mowers, gang-plows 
and horse-hoes, seed-drills and corn-planters, hay-tedders and 
horse-forks were unknown, farmers were, in a high degree, 
independent. But the farmer of to-day is living in quite 
another age. He is now but the producer of raw material, 
and is just as dependent upon men following the other various 
pursuits of life as they are upon him." 

Through all his papers there runs a vein of practicality of 
matter-of-fact to be expected of a devotee to science. Take 
this extract from " Industrial Education :" 

"There is no other question that occasions so much perplex- 
ity and anxiety among those interested in education, and the 
educational institutions of to-day, as this: ' What course of 
study is best suited to the college curriculum?' 
Gradually old landmarks are being removed. Old methods 
are, by degrees, being replaced by new ones. Natural science 
and modern languages are forcing themselves into the college 
course, not to replace the classics, but to share with them in 
the education of men. , 

" The introduction of science into the schools of the coun- 
try has brought with it another element. 

It is the demand for practical education. Not only must sci- 
ence be taught, but it must be so taught as to aid men whom 
the old education did not reach. The farmer, the engineer, 
the miner, the machinist, and the manufacturer, all need the 
assistance it can render. They are all dealing with science 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 113 

nature's laws and for them the demand has come for practi- 
cal education." 

There is a terseness in Prof. Daniells' manner of expressing 
his ideas well adapted to the closeness of thought charh,cteris- 
^ic of scientists. For example: 

" The doctrine of the correlation and conservation of forces, 
is now recognized to be of universal application, wherever 
force in an active or potential form exists. This doctrine 
holds that force, like matter, is indestructible, and that, as a 
consequence, the amount of force in the universe is as definite 
an-d fixed as is the amount of matter of which the universe is 
composed. Although we cannot destroy force, we can cause 
it to change its form, and manifest itself in some other form, 
as in light, heat, electricity, or chemical attraction. 

"Force is made manifest to our senses by its tendency to 
produce or retard motion, and hence, only that which tends to 
produce motion, or tends to stop motion already produced, is 
commonly regarded as force. Yet we learn by their mutual 
relations, and by their capability of being converted, the one 
into the other, that heat, light, electricity, and chemical at- 
traction are but different manifestations of what, when it pro- 
duces motion, we recognize as force." 

Prof. Daniells has long been recognized as one of f he most 
successful instructors in the University, both in the class-room 
and laboratory, his principal characteristics as a teacher being, 
perhaps, his extreme accuracy and faithfulness. The peculiar 
demands of laboratory instruction, quite unlike those of ordi- 
nary class-room teaching, he meets with especial success. He 
knows what he knows, but without ostentation or pride of 
opinion; and his answer to a question is prompt and to the 
point. 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE LAW OF 1866 A CONTINGENT ONE APPOINTMENT OF 

REGENTS PURCHASE OF AN EXPERIMENTAL FARM THE 

UNIVERSITY AT DATE OF REORGANIZATION ATTEMPT TO 

OBTAIN A PRESIDENT PROF. J. E. DAVIES. 

The act of the legislature of Wisconsin of 1866, reorganiz- 
ing and enlarging the University, depended for its effective- 
ness wholly upon Dane county. To enable the board of re- 
gents to purchase land in the vicinity of the University for an 
experimental farm, and to improve the same, the board of su- 
pervisors of that county were authorized and empowered to is- 
sue bonds bearing interest at the rate of seven per cent, per 
annum, interest payable annually, for the amount of forty 
thousand dollars, the bonds to be payable on or before the first 
day of January, 1868, at such place as nrght be determined by 
the supervisor?. The bonds so issued were to be delivered 
to the board of regents of the University, who were to faith- 
fully apply the same, or the proceeds thereof, together with 
all contributions made for that specific purpose, to the pur- 
chase and improvement of the lands for such experimental 
farm. It was, however, provided, that if Dane county, by 
its proper officers, did not make provision for the issue and 
delivery of the bonds within thirty days after the passage of the 
act; and if, in such case, the citizens of that county, should 
fail within thirty days alter the expiration of the first men- 
tioned period to furnish guarantees satisfactory to the secretary 
of state that the amount of forty thousand dollars should be 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 115 

placed at the disposal of the regents at their first meeting; 
then the act was to be null and void. But " the county of 
Dane " made provision for the issue of the bonds within 
the period of thirty days; and the act not only took effect 
" from and after its passage, " but remained in force and is 
still, to a great extent, a law of the state. 

On the 25th day of May, 1866, the governor appointed, in 
accordance with the act of reorganization, R. B. Sanderson, J. 
Cover, John G. McMynn, F. O. Thorpe, M. B. Axtell, as 
regents for one year; John B. Parkinson, A. L. Smith, B. R. 
Hinckley, Samuel Fellows, and Jacob S. Bugh, for two 
years; Jackson Hadley, C. S. Hamilton, Edward Salomon, 
Angus Cameron, and N. B. Van Slyke, for three years. 
Thomas S. Allen, secretary of state, became, by virtue of his 
office, secretary of the board of regents; and state treasurer, 
W. E. Smith, became treasurer of the board. 

The new regents held their first meeting on the twenty- 
seventh day of June, 1866; perfected their organization; re- 
ceived the bonds, amounting to forty thousand dollars, from 
Dane county; and succeeded to the custody of the books, re- 
cords, buildings, and all property of the University deliv- 
ered to them by the former board of regents. 

One of the first duties devolving upon the board of regents 
was the purchase of an experimental farm. After a full 
and thorough examination of such lands as were offered them 
for that purpose, and such others as they believed could be 
obtained, they bought that part of section fourteen, in town- 
ship seven north, of range nine east, lying west of the Univer- 
sity grounds; also, that part of section twenty-three, in the 
same township and range, lying between the "Sauk road" on 
the south, and the tract in section fourteen adjoining on the 
north: also, five town lots adjoining the University grounds on 
the southwest corner; comprising, in all, about one hundred 
and ninety-five acres, at a cost, in round numbers, of twenty- 
seven thousand dollars. 

Up to date of its reorganization, no one who was at all famil- 



116 SKETCHES OF THE 

iar with the history of the University, could have failed to ob- 
serve that the principal cause of its apparent want of success 
lay in the fact that the institution had been managed for a 
number of years without a chancellor, s* necessity the former 
regents were compelled to submit to on account of the crip- 
pled financial condition of the institution and the insufficiency 
of its income. The acting chancellor Prof. J. W. Sterling 
did all he could to make the University a success, it is 
true; but the powers granted him were too limited to carry for- 
ward plans necessary to advance the interests of the institution 
to any great extent. Although the new board of regents found 
the University, so far as its available means of support were con- 
cerned, in scarcely a better condition than it was left by the 
old board; and, although the act of reorganization called for a 
much more extended field of instruction than had previously 
been given; there was a determination to press forward 
the work, and for these reasons: the agricultural college fund 
would, in a few years, increase the income of the institution ; 
and the annual expenses heretofore charged by the state for 
the management of its fund were, in future, not to be with- 
drawn from its resources. Beside, the legislature had required 
the regents to undertake the reorganization upon a more 
extended plan, and it was manifest that the citizens of Wiscon- 
sin were feeling a deeper interest in the University than at any 
previous time. The next step for the regents to take was, to 
obtain the services of a fit and capable person as president. 

The first choice of the regents fell upon J. L. Pickard, before 
that time and for some years superintendent of public instruc- 
tion in Wisconsin, and at that date superintendent of schools 
in Chicago; but the board failed to obtain his services. They 
next tendered the office of president to Prof. Paul A. Chad- 
bourne, who, for the time, declined the position. This com- 
pelled the regents to begin the seventeenth university year 
(1866-1867) with the faculty previously employed, and mainly 
with the old course of instruction. 

In 1868, John Eugene Davies, A. M., M. D., was, as sue- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. ll'7 

cessor to Prof. Carr, called to the chair of natural history and 
chemistry, in the University, filling- that position, and at the 
same time teaching astronomy, until 1875, when his office was 
changed to astronomy and physics. This chair he still occu- 
pies; bat, after the present university year (1878-1879), it 
will include physics only. He was born on the twenty-third 
of April, 1839. When lie was two years of age, his parents 
removed from Clarkstown, New York, to the city of New York. 
He was sent to the public school until twelve years old, when 
he passed, by examination, into what was then the Free Acad- 
emy, now the College of the City of New York. Here he 
chose the. modern classical course, in which Latin and French 
took the place of Greek. In 1855, he came with his parents 
to Wisconsin, continuing his studies as best he could, mean- 
while teaching school in the winter and doing farm work in 
the summer. 

In the spring of 1859, he entered Lawrence university at 
Appleton, Wisconsin, as a third-term sophomore. He contin- 
ued two years in the junior class to make up Greek, gradua- 
ting in the summer of 1862, with honor because of extra 
attainments in mathematics and astronomy. At the solic- 
itation of a friend who was a physician, he began the study 
of medicine, although having no special predilection for that 
profession; it was his idea, however, that it would keep him 
nearer science than either of the other professions. He had 
only studied two months when the battle of Pittsburgh Land- 
ing was fought and there was another call, by President Lin- 
coln, for troops. This induced him to join the army. His 
experience as a soldier was varied and interesting. He enlist- 
ed as a private in the twenty-'first Wisconsin regiment of vol- 
unteer infantry, marching with it to Covington, Kentucky; 
afterward to Louisville, during the approach of General Bragg 
from Chattanooga. In both these places, he served in the 
trenches and performed such duties as fall to the lot of a pri- 
vate soldier in time of war. 

On the retreat of Bragg, without any effort on his part, but 



118 SKETCHES OF THE 

through the kindness of the surgeon of his regiment, he was 
put on detail duty by Major-General Buell, being quartered 
in one of the hospitals of Louisville. Here he remained some 
months. He was afterward appointed sergeant-majo^of his 
regiment, and was in the battles of Chickamauga and Mission 
Ridge. He served subsequently, for six months, on picket- 
duty, 011 the top of Lookout mountain, Tennessee. He was 
with his regiment in all its fighting, on the march to Atlanta, 
Georgia, and around that city, and on its backward march to 
Chattanooga, when General Hood undertook his flank move- 
ment upon Nashville but was beaten back by Thomas. He 
afterward saw Atlanta burned, and went under Sherman upon 
his famous "march to the sea." He was recommended for 
promotion at this time, but owing to the cutting off of all com- 
munications, he did not receive his commission as first lieuten- 
ant until the army entered Goldsborough, North Carolina, 
after the battle of Bentonville. He marched home with his 
regiment by way of Richmond to Washington, having served 
his three years without a day's furlough. His war record is 
one he can look back upon with pride; it is just such a record 
as might be expected from a man of his character, who, from 
love of country only, entered the union ranks as a private, and, 
in comparatively humble positions, served his whole time with 
courage and fidelity. 

He resumed his medical studies in 1865, at the Chicago 
medical college, receiving the degree of doctor of medicine in 
the spring of 1868, he having continued in attendance at clin- 
ical lectures in Cook county hospital and Mercy hospital, in 
that city, until the end of August, 1868, when he came to 
Madison, Wisconsin, to assume the duties of professor in the 
University, to which position he had been elected, as before 
mentioned. While in Chicago, he was one year a professor of 
chemistry at the Chicago medical college, and gave lectures on 
inorganic and organic chemistry and toxicology. This position 
he resigned upon being called to the chair of natural history 
and chemistry in the University of Wisconsin. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 119 

The chosen field of Prof. Davies is science. Therein has 
been his principal and most successful work; but, an article on 
"Correlation of Forces in Physiology and Medicine," pub- 
lished in the transactions of the Wisconsin state medical soci- 
ety for 1872, shows that letters have not been neglected by 
him while investigating the laws of nature. "The growth of 
science," are his words, in the opening paragraph, "for the 
past three hundred years, has tended to one result, namely: 
to prove, as a truth, the conservation or indestructibility of 
matter and force. Physical science and chemical science unite 
in showing that, however matter or force may change its form, 
it is still undestroyed; and may sooner or later be brought 
back to its initial form, again to change in a similar manner 
under similar circumstances, the sum total being constantly the 
same. This great principle, stated abstractly, is as follows: 
The whole work done, in any time, on any limited material 
system, by applied forces, is equal to the whole effect in the 
forms of actual and potential energy produced in the system, 
together with the work lost (if any) bv the resistance of the 
parts of the system among themselves; for example, by friction. 
This is the statement of the law of conservation of force." 
And, it may be added, it is a statement remarkable for its con- 
ciseness and clearness. 

Prof. Davies is a member of the Wisconsin academy of sci- 
ences, arts, and letters, and has been the general secretary from 
its organization. Papers read by him and printed in its trans- 
actions are, (1) " On Potentials and their Application to Physi- 
cal Science;" (2) "Recent Progress in Theoretical Physics;" 
(3) " The Magnetic Rotary Polarization of Light " a contin- 
uation, in reality, of the' paper last mentioned. These con- 
tributions not only evince careful thought upon the subjects 
they discuss, but also comprehensiveness in the study of sci- 
ence generally. Of the range of his scientific inquiries, the 
following sentence from the introduction to his review of the 
progress of the physical sciences, will serve as an example: 

"A complete review of these researches [which constitute the 



120 SKETCHES OF THE 

recent notable theoretical advances in physical science] would 
include Clausius' remarkable theorems upon the mechanics of 
a great number of molecules, and Boltzmann's results in the 
same direction, together with their application to the theory of 
heat; the studies of Helmholtz and Thompson upon the vortex 
motion of fluids and their analogues among magnetic forces 
and electric currents; Thompson's explanation of the magnet- 
ic rotation of the plane of polarization ol circularly polarized 
light, first experimentally shown by Faraday; the experimental 
researches of Jamin, Rowland, Stoletow, Bouty, and others, in 
magnetism; Rankine's hypothesis of molecular vortices; Clerk 
Maxwell's wonderful electro-magnetic theory of light, with the 
experimental researches thereon, by Boltzmann and others; 
the explanation of anomalous dispersion, by Ketteler of Bonn; 
the mathematical relations of vibratory and translatory mo- 
tions in fluids, by Challis; the explanation of the blue color 
and polarization of the sky, by Lord Rayleigh, as also his 
remarkable results upon resonance and sound generally; the 
mathematico-physical discoveries of Kirchoff; the Kinetic 
theory of diffusion, conduction, and radiation, by Maxwell; 
the thermo-electrical researches of Tait; and many other 
researches as well, all tending to the simplification and unity 
of the physical sciences, by showing a probable similarity or 
identity of cause for the most diverse phenomena." 

An article contributed to the state board of health of Wis- 
consin, by Prof. Davies, upon " The Value of Vital Statistics," 
is a very able paper, showing the necessity for collecting such 
statistics on a large scale and for extended periods of time, 
and also showing that the results of such labors exhibit a 
remarkable degree of uniformity, and tend to the establish- 
ment of great laws. In his opening, he says: 

" In most of the questions of life, even the most momen- 
tous, our actions are based upon mere probability. Represent- 
ing absolute certainty by one, in nine-tenths of our decisions 
concerning common affairs, we are doubtless determined to act 
by probabilities whose numerical value does much exceed one- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 121 

half; while, in many cases, where great prizes are at stake, or 
the consequences of failure are very disastrous, we do not hes- 
itate to take up with one chance among a thousand or a mil- 
lion; and we sometimes feel compelled to act, even if blindly, 
under the influence of hope or fear, meanwhile, utterly igno- 
rant as to whether we have a single chance for us, among the 
infinitude of possible chances for and against us. It is, nev- 
ertheless, always an advantage to know beforehand, if we can, 
the numorical value of a risk; even where, from the nature 
of the case, we are unable to change, in any manner, the cir- 
cumstances that govern this numerical value. We can thus 
act intelligently, and are able to fix responsibility where it be- 
longs. We trace more readily the connection between cause 
and effect, arid we are better able to judge whether supposed 
causes are such in reality or not." 

Prof. Davies is an active co-laborer upon the United States 
coast survey. He has sent to the superintendent of this work 
at Washington, twenty-three manuscript volumes of records of 
horizontal angles of the trigonometrical survey of Wisconsin; 
fourteen volumes of vertical angles; ten volumes of records of 
measurement of the triangulation base-line near Spring Green, 
Wisconsin; two volumes of records of ordinary levels; two 
volumes of reconnaissance for the triangulation of Wisconsin; 
two volumes of descriptions of stations selected as triangula- 
tion points in Wisconsin; five volumes of computations: mak- 
ing, in all, fifty-eight manuscript volumes. 

The coast survey department, at the request of Prof. Davies, 
applied, some time since, to the board of regents of theUniver- 
srty for the erection of a magnetic observatory upon the Uni- 
versity grounds. The officers of the survey proposed to furnish 
all the necessary instruments, and assume the care and cost of 
superintendence, upon the simple condition that the University 
would provide the building required for conducting the ob^er- 
servations prescribed. The interests of science as well as 
state pride, dictated a prompt acceptance of the proposal. The 
result has been the construction of the observatory, under the 



122 SKETCHES OF THE 

personal direction of an officer of the survey. Since its com- 
pletion in 1876, it has been under the general supervision of 
Prof. Davies. 

In the profession of teacher, to have thoughts is, of course, 
of the first importance; next to this in value is to express them 
with readiness and perspicuity. The chief characteristic of 
Prof. Davies' instruction is, his bringing constantly to bear a 
large amount of scientific information, in a ready, clear, and 
interesting manner. His attainments in mathematics are justly 
recognized as placing him among leading mathematicians of 
the United States. He reads extensively, and reasons closely. 
He is skillful in the use of apparatus, knowing well the great 
advantages the student derives from proper adjuncts and ap- 
pliances. Pupils under his instruction, as -they advance in 
their classes, are more and more impressed with the idea that, 
within the scope of his professorship, they have a thoroughly 
competent leader. This is the real and unfailing test of the 
successful teacher, in any department of science. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 



CHAPTER XTIL 

THE SEVENTEENTH UNIVERSITY YEAH PECUNIARY ASSISTANCE 

BY THE STATE AMENDATORY LAW OF 1867 PAUL A. CHAD- 

HOURNE ELECTED PRESIDENT RECONSTRUCTION MEASURES 

ADOPTP:D THE NORMAL DEPARTMENT CONTINUED PROF. 
STEPHEN II. CARPENTER. 

The seventeenth university year began on the twenty-ninth 
of August, 1838, and ended June 25, 1857, with the graduation, 
in the classical coarse, of Jotham SjuicUr; in the scientific 
course, of George Cross, Karl Ruf, Albert H. Southworth, and 
Win. A, Tniasdell. There were, likewise, thirteen graduates in 
the normal course: Mary L. Craig, Isabel Durrie, Annie M. 
Gorum, Delia M. Isham, Ella Larkin, Mary S. Lyinan, Anna 
McArthur, Carrie Nelson, Emma R. Phillips, Lizzie Robson, 
Charity Rusk, Emma W. Sharp, Addie O. Wadsworth. The 
or.ition before the alumni association was delivered by J. B. 
Parkinson, of the class of 1800. The poem was read by 
Alexander C. Botkin, of the class of 1859. During this 
university year, Prof. Read resigned the professorship of 
mental, ethical, and political science, rhetoric, and English 
literature; and was succeeded by Stephen H. Carpenter, A. 
M., who was appointed by the executive committee of the 
University to fill the chair until the next commencement. 
Prof. Read died, on the third of October, 1878, in Keokuk, 
Iowa, and was buried, on the sixth of the same month, in 
Forest Hill cemeterv, near Madison, Wisconsin. 



124 SKETCHES OF TTfK 

The regents of the University, although disappointed and 
embarrassed by their failure to secure the services of a proper 
person as president, did not slacken their efforts toward re- 
organization, under the law of 186(>. Confidence on part of 
the public increased, and the legislature of the state felt its 
effect, inducing a more liberal policy than had before been 
pursued by that body. By an act approved April 5, 1862, 
there had been appropriated from the capital of the univer- 
sity fund, a sum sufficient to pay the debts at that date exist- 
ing against the institution; and this sum it was now proposed 
to return; that is to say, it was proposed that the interest on 
that amount should be paid annually, by the state, to the 
University, for at least ten years. So an act to that effect was 
passed, and approved April 6, 1867. This pecuniary assistance 
amounting to a little over seven thousand three hundred dol- 
lars annually, was much needed; and although the sum allowed 
could not be rendered available for a year, the effect of the ac- 
tion of the legislature was immediately felt; as it was now 
clearly seen, that the University was placed in a condition 
financially, where solid and permanent organization and devel- 
opement were not only possible, but extremely probable. 
Up to this time, Wisconsin had not donated a dollar 
to the University. Its funds, its grounds, and its buildings, 
were all, in fact, the benefaction of the general government. 
Its professors had been paid from the same source; while the 
experimental farm was the gift of Dane coui\ty. Nor, had 
any private donation assistad the institution, as yet, in any 
very material way. 

By the act of 1886, the University, in its several de- 
partments and colleg33, wo,* thrown op in alika to male 
and female students. It was this clause of the law that stood 
largely in the way of obtaining a suitable person as president. 
It was believed that to attempt to carry out this provision of 
the act, in its full scope, would not only be injurious to the fu- 
ture prospects of the University, but would almost certainly 
result in the failure of any one who should attempt the admin- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 125 

astration of affairs of the institution as president. To secure 
therefore, the services of a thoroughly competent and expe- 
rienced 'educator as head of the University, it was necessary 
that the law should be amended, so as to give the board 
of regents the power to admit female students, under such 
rules and regulations as they might deem proper; that i?, it 
was believed absolutely rieccessary that the board should have 
authority to create a separate female department, and make 
the necessary regulations concerning the participation of fe- 
males in the different branches of university studies. The leg- 
islature was not slow in responding favorably to the wishes of 
the regents in that regard; and, by a law approved April 10, 
1867, the University was opened to female as well as male 
students, 'tinder such regulations as the board o^ reyents 
might deem proper. 

On tli3 twenty-second day of June, 1807, the presidency of 
the University was again offered to Prof. Chadbourne, who 
accepted the position, now that (what seemed to be) the two 
principal obstacles to the prosperity to the institution had been 
removed. He entered at once with great zeal and ability upon 
the task of reorganization. The regents, by a vote, declared it 
inexpedient to elect any of the old faculty to positions in the 
reorganized institution, and with highly complimentary reso- 
lutions dismissed them from their offices: so that now a new 
faculty was to ba selected; new courses of study were to be 
provided; and the ladies' department was to be adjusted 
in its relations to the University. 

At the end of the seventeenth University year (I860 18G7), 
the reconstruction of the faculty began. Paul A. Chadbourne, 
president of the institution, took the chair of mental and 
moral philosophy. John W. Starling was temporarily retain- 
ed from the old faculty, and subsequently re-elected to the 
chair of natural philosophy and astronomy; Ezra S. Carr was 
likewise retained, for the time, as professor of chemistry and 
natural history, but afterward resigned; J. 13. Parkinson became 
professor of mathematics and principal of the preparatory de- 



126 SKETCHES OF THE 

partment; William F. Allen, professor of ancient languages 
and history; T. N. Haskell filled the chair of rhetoric and 
English literature; while B. E. Harmon and Amos Thompson, 
were chosen tutors. Miss Elizabeth Earl was elected to the 
office of preceptress in the normal department, and Miss 
Clarissa Ware retained as associate preceptress. Miss Frances 
Brown was employed as teacher of music, and Miss Louisa 
Brewster as teacher of painting and drawing. 

Under the law of 1866. the regents could do no less than or- 
ganize, for the University, a college of arts and a college of 
letters. The plain intent of the act, so far as appertained to 
the college of arts was, that it should provide not only ior a 
general scientific education, but also such a range of studies in 
the applications of science as to meet the wants of all those 
who might desire to fit themselves for agricultural, mechani- 
cal, commercial, or strictly scientific prusuits. A course of 
study was therefore adopted in that college, which it wa be- 
lieved would provide for a sound education in the elements of 
science; at the same time great freedom was granted each 
student in choice of studies. Agriculture was made one of 
the elective studies; and it was the intention of the regents 
to choose, at the earliest practical moment, a professor in that 
department. 

The intent of the law, as to the college of letters, could not 
be misunderstood. It must ' ; be co-existent with the college 
of arts, " and embrace a liberal course of instruction in lan- 
guage, literature, and philosophy, together with such courses 
or [jarts of courses in the college of arts, as the authorities of 
the University might prescribe. The course adopted included- 
ed mathematics, Latin, Greek, French, antiquities, German, 
natural history, chemistry, physics, civil polity, astronomy, 
mental philosophy, English literature, logic, moral philosophy, 
rhetoric, aesthetics, natural theology, analogy, and history. 
Lectures were to be given on the laws of health and methods 
of study, on human anatomy, and on evidences. There were 
also to be themes, declamations, critical essays, and forensic 
disputations, weekly. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 127 

It was a provision of the law of I860, that professional and 
other colleges might from time to timo be added to the Uni- 
versity. To this branch belonged the normal department; and, 
at date of reorganization, none other was added. This 
college was continued by the regents for the purpose of 
furnishing a thorough education for ladies. It may be said, in 
this connection, that, although the University, under the 
amendatory law of 1867, was not open alike to male and 
female students, "in all its departments and colleges," liberali- 
ty at once characterized the action of the regents; for, in 
their report for the year ending September 30, 1807, they say: 
"The normal room and boarding house are under the imme- 
diate care of the preceptress, but instruction is given to the 
normal classes by the president and all the professors of the 
University. Students, in this department, may also attend all 
university lectures; and may, in addition to the course of 
study prescribed for graduating, elect any study in the college 
of arts or letters." It was thus, step by step, slowly but sure- 
ly, that the problem of " co-education of the sexes " (so far, 
at least, as the University of Wisconsin was concerned) was 
being solved. 

In 1868, Stephen Haskens Carpenter, A. M., was elected to 
the chair of rhetoric and English literature in the University, as 
the successor of Prof. Haskell. He was born in Little Falls, 
Herkimer county, New York, August 7, 1831. His early 
education was given him at his home. He prepared for col- 
lege at Munro academy, Elbridge, New York. In 1848, he 
entered the freshman class of Madison university at Hamilton, 
that state, afterward, in 1850, entering the junior class of the 
university of Rochester, graduating with the degree of bach- 
elor of arts, in 1852. He had early shown a predilection for the 
classics; and having been taught Latin at home, in his youth, 
he was enabled to continue the study in college with more 
than ordinary success. To the Greek, also, he gave a good deal 
of attention; so that, at his graduation, his reputation was ex- 
cellent for his attainments in both languages. After graduat- 
ing, lie came to Wisconsin. 



128 SKETCHES OF THE 

Of his arrival in Madison, says one who was then of the fac- 
ulty of the University: "He had come to join the small body 
of us then constituting* the faculty, who were striving in the 
midst of narrow and discouraging conditions, to lay the foun- 
dations of a great institution of learning tor Wisconsin. He 
was then just arrived at legal manhood, just turned of twen- 
ty-one years of age, and was just graduated from college. In 
personal appearance, however, and in the extent and range of 
his acquirements, he seemed four or five years older."* He 
occupied the position of tutor in the University, at the com- 
mencement of the third university year (1852-1853), taking 
the place of O. M. Conover, who was promoted to the chair of 
ancient languages and literature. He retained his position 
until July, 1854, when he resigned, and was succeeded by 
Augustus L. Smith. 

After being a few months employed in selling cabinet-ware 
in Madison, as senior member of the firm of Carpenter and 
Lawrence, he associated himself in that city with S. D. Car- 
penter in the publication of the Daily Patriot, he being an- 
nounced, on the twentieth of November, 1854, as its local 
editor and publisher, while S. D. Carpenter became the politi- 
cal editor. On the seventeenth of July, 1855, he succeeded to 
the position of joint editor; and, on the twenty-ninth of Jan- 
uary, 185G, of joint publisher. On the twenty-eighth of July 
following, he retired from the Patriot, having disposed of his 
interest to Rolla A. Law. On the thirty-first day of January, 
1857. he established, in Madison, a neatly printed weekly 
paper devoted to news and literary and miscellaneous reading, 
but non-political, called the Western fireside. It was a good 

*Frora an address delivered bv O. M. Coaover, LL. D., before the 
state historical society of Wisconsin, December, 17, 1878, in memory of 
Prof. Carpenter. "I have never personally known,' continues Dr. 
Conover," any man of his years, any graduate fresh from an American 
college, who had so large an acquaintance with Greek literature, espe- 
cially with the Greek poets. He had already read all the Homeric poems 
through several times, and was singularly familiar with several of the 
Greek dramatists, especially ^Eschylus and Sophocles.'' 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 129 

family puper, and was ably edited, but its support was not 
sufficient to justify its publication; so, on the eighth of January, 
1858, it was discontinued. The materials of the office were 
afterward purchased by the proprietors of the State Journal, 
This ended his career as editor and publisher. He continued 
in it, however, long enough to be recognized, by the public, 
not only as a man of ability, but as a graceful writer,* 

For the years 1858 and 1859, he was assistant superinten- 
dent of public instruction for Wisconsin. Being a very 
methodical man, he introduced order and system into the in- 
ternal administration of the office. In 1800, he was elected 
professor of ancient languages in St. Paul's college, Palmyra, 
Missouri. This position he held until the war of the rebellion 
broke up the institution. Returning north, he taught a select 
school one winter, in Richland, Wisconsin. Afterward, fail- 
ing to find more congenial employment, he maintained him- 
self, for a time, by working at the printer's trade in Madison, 
setting type in the offices of the Wisconsin Farmer and 
State Journal. He also gave lessons in Gennan. Dur- 
ing these years, all his spare time was devoted to literary 
studies. 

In 1804, he was elected clerk of the city of Madison, con- 
tinuing in that office until October, 1808, when he resigned. 
Meanwhile, he filled, temporarily, the chair in the University 
made vacant by the resignation of Prof. Read, as before men- 
tioned. He was also a member of the city board of education, 
Madison; and, from January 1, 1808, to the first day of October 
following, was superintendent of the schools of Dane county. 
His resignation of these offices was made imperative because 
of his acceptance of the professorship of rhetoric and English 
literature in the University. This chair was changed, in 1874, 
to logic and English literature, but Prof. Carpenter was con- 

* Adapted largely from "A History of the Press of Dane county, Wis- 
consin," written by David Atwood, and furnished the Wisconsin edi- 
torial association, at Fond du Lac, at its ninth annual session, June, 1865, 



130 SKETCHES OF THE 

tinued therein until his death, which occurred at Geneva, 
New York, December 7, 1878.* 

In 1855, the degree of master of arts was conferred upon 
him by his alma mater, and in 1872, that of doctor of laws. He 
was married to Miss Frances Curtis, of Madison, Wisconsin, on 
the fourteenth of May, 1850. In 1875, he was elected to the 
presidency of the Kansas university, but declined the office, 
believing he could do a greater and better work in the institu- 
tion with which he was connected. In 187G, he was appointed 
by the state superintendent of public instruction of Wiscon- 
sin, an examiner of teachers applying for state certificates. 
He continued to hold this office until his decease. 

It may be said that, as teacher, Dr. Carpenter had few 
equals in the United States. His favorite fields were rhetoric, 
logic, and English literature; these he cultivated assiduously. 
Although at home in the classics, in political and moral 
science, in French and German, and in mathematics, it was in 
the English language and literature that he was especially 
erudite esp3cia!ly profound. Out.sida this department, 
"his knowledge was not of the sort that would be called 
erudition; it was rather general than detailed; and consisted, 
principally, of such facts as had an importance outside of the 
science to which they belonged. It was such knowledge as a 
man of vigorous mind and retentive memory, (whose leading 
trait was the clear perception of the bearing of things), would 
gather from an extensive field of reading and study." f 

The fame of Dr. Carpenter rests largely, therefore, upon the 
wonderful power he exhibited as an educator. " He loved his 
work and threw his whole being into it. His class-room was nev- 
er a tedious place. A student never sought that room in doubt 
*For many of these facts, lam indebted to a biographical sketch of 
Prof. C irpsnter, from the able pan of R. B. Anderson, A. M., professor of 
Scandinavian languages in the University of Wisconsin, printed in 
Robinson's Epitoms of Liter.iture, Philadelphia, December, 1378. 

fFrom Prof. "Win. F. Allen's memorial address before the state histori- 
cal society of Wisconsin, December 17, 1878. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 131 

of receiving help, or left it unsatisfied. Every one felt the re- 
markable permeating presence of the beloved instructor. Prof. 
Carpenter put his stamp upon every intellect. He reached 
out with a strong arm and raised the voung men and women 
to a higher intellectual plane. He made himself felt. A stu- 
dent knew he was standing upon solid ground in the professor's 
presence. "* " His thought, " says another, *' was preemi- 
nently logical. He saw quickly and traced rapidly the re- 
lations of things. Logic was a favorite science with him, and 
he gave it more enforcement in the minds of pupils than any 
other teacher 1 have ever known. It was the stronghold of 
his instruction." f Says Prof. J. B. Parkinson: u Prof. 
Carpenter was distinctly an educator teacher. In "his ability 
to impart instruction his aptness to teach lay his special 
power. Not one man in ten thousand could equal him as a 
teacher. Here was his chosen field. In it was the work th^t 
lay nearest his heart. He thoroughly appreciated the chief 
requisites of the successful instructor." " Prof. Carpenter 
seemed to aim, '' continues Prof. Parkinson," at a thorough 
mastery of his department; and his familiarity with what he 
had iu hand, his wealth of happy and forcible illustrations, and 
his genuine enthusiasm, constituted the chief secrets of his suc- 
cess in the class-room. As a teacher, then, and 1 use the 
term in its technical sense, his impress has left the deepest 
furrows. As a teacher, his influence will reach the farthest 
and abide the longest. "J 

In 1807, Prof. Carpenter published his first work a book 
entitled " Songs for the Sabbath School." It consisted of a 
collection of melodies, embracing a variety of new tunes; 
these, with one exception, were composed by himself. In the 
preface, the author says: "The music in this little book is all 

*Sec Madison Daily Democrat, December 8, 1878. 

f Memorial address before the state historical society of Wisconsin, 
December 17, 1878, by President John Bascoin of the State University. 

^Address, in memory of Dr. Carpenter, before the state historical 
society of Wisconsin, December 17, 1878. 



132 SKETCHES OF THE 

new and is believed to be serviceable. The words do not in- 
culcate error, but are in accordance with evangelical truth." 
The hymns, also, several of them, were written by him. These 
are, generally, to be commended for their sweetness and ten- 
derness. 

As the result of his studies of Anglo-Saxon and the English 
language, Prof. Carpenter has given to the schools of the coun- 
try three excellent books: " English of the Fourteenth Cen- 
tury; " "An Introduction to the Study of the Anglo-Saxon Lan- 
guage;" and, "The Elements 6f English Analysis." The first 
mentioned is, in fact, Chaucer's " Prologue " and " Knight's 
Tale," illustrated by grammatical and philological notes, de- 
signed to serve as an introduction to the study of English lit- 
erature. The author's notes are ample; and these, together 
with a glossary, are intended to remove every difficulty that 
would meet a student of average ability. In his second book, 
u An Introduction to the Study of the Anglo-Saxon Lan- 
guage," he comprises an elementary grammar of the Anglo- 
Saxon; also selections for reading, with explanatory notes, 
and a vocabulary. In his last book, " The Elements of Eng- 
lish Analysis," he uses a system of diagrams to represent 
to the eve the outline structure of a sentence, in order the 
more readily to fix the principles of analysis in the mind of 
the student. This is a small but carefully written work. 

After the publication of his Anglo-Saxon grammar, Dr. Car- 
penter devoted the most of his leisure hours to the transla- 
tion and annotation of the celebrated poem, "Beowulf," the old- 
est monument extant of Anglo-Saxon literature. He had just 
completed the translation when he died, and was prepar- 
ing a somewhat elaborate introduction, which he left not 
quite finished. This last important work of Prof. Carpenter, 
one on which he bestowed much care and to which he gave his 
ripest scholarship, will be published under the editorship of 
Prof. R. B. Anderson, who wav, through many years, his 
bosom friend. 

Prof. Carpenter was not an author of books in the popular 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 133 

sense of the term. He wrote but one " An Historical Sketch 
of the University of Wisconsin" adapted to the general reader; 
but, to the religious and educational periodicals of the country, 
he contributed extensively. His communications took a wide 
range. His style of writing is marked and strikingly charac- 
teristic of the man. When he said anything he said it; and, at 
times, the fire of his thoughts consumed his words. Although 
largely wanting in the imaginative element, his diction is, 
nevertheless, peculiarly attractive because of its smoothness 
and clearness. Take this paragraph, as an example, from "'The 
Relations of Skepticism and Scholarship," in the Baptist 
Quarterly', for January, 1873 : 

" Faith is the condition of progress. Belief grasps actual 
possession by the strong hand of demonstration; while faith 
rises superior to reason, and grasps greater truth by the 
stronger hand of conviction. Faith is not an abandonment of 
reason; it is the condition of reason. It places the crown of 
universal dominion upon the head of man; puts in his hands 
a sceptre, which the future as well as the' present obeys, 
eternity as well as time. It asserts our kinship with God, who 
does not discover truth by the slow process of reason, but who 
reaches his conclusions by the same intuitive action by which 
faith apprehends principles. Reason adapts man to the pres- 
ent life. Faith is a pledge of immortality. Destroy faith, and 
man is hedged in by humanity is limited to the now and here 
to the little segment of the infinite circle which lies imme- 
diately before him. Add faith to reason, and out into infini- 
ty, onward into comin<r eternity, upward to God himself, 
sweep the slowly arching sides of the mighty circle of truth, 
whose round will, nevertheless, forever baffle finite measure- 
ment." 

A number of his educational addresses have been pub- 
lished. His direct way of giving utterance to his thoughts is 
well illustrated in the opening paragraph of one of these 
" Industrial Education "delivered before a convention of the 
Wisconsin state agricultural society, February, 1874: "-There 



134 SKETCHES OF THE 

are two essential requisites to success in any trade or profes- 
sion: a knowledge of the principles forming the science 
of which the profession is the practical application; and skill 
in the application of these principles. The one requires culti- 
vated mind; the other, cultivated muscle. Every profession 
presents those two sides, but notably those which are largely 
dependent upon mechanical operations for their success." 

An address on "Reading, " delivered before the state teach- 
ers' association of Wisconsin, in July, 1871, at Madison, and 
published in the August number of the Wisconsin Journal 
of Education, for that year; also an article in the Ex- 
aminer and Chronicle, on the " The Education Question 
Conflicts between the Old and New;" are worthy of special 
commendation. His centennial fourth-of- July address, in Mad- 
ison, a<Med to his reputaion as an orator and man of culture. 
"The Relation of the Different Educational Institutions 
of the State "and "Rambles in the World of Words," con- 
tributions to the periodical first named, exhibit, in a striking 
light, the wide range of his thoughts and his extensive scho- 
lastic attainments. 

Of Dr. Carpenter's published lectures, one on " Moral 
Forces in Education," and a series of twelve on u The Evi- 
dences of Christianity," have received a merited recognition 
from some of our country's ablest and best men. His trans- 
lations from the French have also been highly complimented. 
The most notable of these efforts are (1) articles on political 
economy and the future of the Catholic nations, of Emile de 
Laveleye and (2) stories of George Sand, from Revue des deux 
Mondes. Dr. Carpenter was a member of the Wisconsin acad- 
emy of sciences, arts, and letters. He contributed two papers 
to its '"Transactions:" (1) "The Metaphysical Basis of Science;" 
(2) "The Philosopy of Evolution." These papers attract- 
ed wide attention, especially the last mentioned. His very 
latest contribution to the press was a solution of an algebraic 
problem, to be found in the January number, 1879, of the 
Wisconsin Journal of Education. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 135 

The sudden death of Dr. Carpenter produced a profound 
impression in Wisconsin. Resolutions expressing appreciation 
and esteem were adopted by the faculty and regents of the 
University, also by the state teachers 1 association, and by 
the state historical society of which he was a member and 
an officer. His mortal remains lie buried in the beautiful 
cemetery near the city of Madison, not far away from the in- 
stitution where man^ of his years were so profitably 
employed and where he gathered unto himself a name and 
fame that Wisconsin will long remember with pride and 
respect. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

PROF. KOLAND D. IRVING CAPT. WILL AM J. L. NICODEMUS. 

In 1870, Roland Duer Irving was elected, by the regents, to 
the professorship of geology, mining, and metallurgy, in 
the University of Wisconsin. He was born .in New York 
city, April 27, 1847. His early education was obtained 
at home. He received most of his classical preparation from 
his father, Pierre Irving, who was a nephew of Washington 
Irving, and an Episcopal clergyman of literary tastes and habits. 
The son's three years immediately preceding his entering col- 
lege were spent at a German private school, in New Brighton, 
on Staten Island, New York, where his parents had resided 
since he was two years of age. He entered Columbia college, 
New York city, in the freshman class, in 1863, and continued 
at that institution and the school of mines connected there- 
with, six years, graduating, in 1869, as master of arts and en- 
gineer of mines. While a student in college, he spent six 
months in Europe; this was in 1866. During his summer 
vacation of 1867, just after entering the school of mines, he 
became an assistant to the engineer of a large anthracite 
colliery. 

Immediately after his graduation, he was engaged upon the 
Ohio geological survey, under J. S. Newberry, state geologist, 
spending the season of 1869, in the southern and southwester- 
portions of that state. His principal independent work, in 
that field, was the detailed measurement of the system of rocks 
known as the Waverly group, the results of which are given 
in the Ohio geological report for 1874. He then went 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 137 

east and was appointed metallurgist of a gold and silver 
smelting-works near Jersey City, New Jersey; and while thus 
engaged, was elected to the chair in the University of Wis- 
consin as previously mentioned. He came west and began 
his official duties in the institution in December, 1870, and 
has ever since filled the same chair. At the commencement of 
his labors, he started a metallurgical laboratory, fitted out with 
furnaces and other appliances. He also introduced laboratory 
instruction in mineralogy. His department now includes not 
only instruction in geology, mineralogy, metallurgy, and 
assaying, but the charge of the geological and mineralogical 
cabinets? 

In moving to the new building (science hall), it became 
necessary to entirely rearrange the cabinet material then on 
hand, as also to incorporate a large amount of new material 
obtained from the collections of the late Dr. I. A. Lapham 
and Moses Strong. This work has been performed by Prof. 
Irving; and the mineralogical cabinet is now nearly in order, 
and the geological room in a forward condition. Although he 
has had so many different things to engage his attention, h.e 
has become more and more a specialist in geology and miner- 
alogy, to which branches (and particularly to the former, in all 
its relations) it is, doubtless, his hope to devote himself 
largely in the future. Prof. Irving is, in the strict sense of the 
word, a scientist. He has made an excellent reputation at 
home and abroad, especially as a geologist. His success, in 
that line, is owing, in a marked degree, to his practicality a 
peculiarity which is demanded by the present utilitarian age; 
the mere theorizer in science receives little recognition. 

Under an act of the legislature of Wisconsin, approved 
March 19, 1873, '* to provide for a complete geological survey 
of" the state, I. A. Lapham was commissioned, on the tenth 
day of the succeeding April, as chief geologist, and Prof. 
Irving on the twenty-ninth of the same month as one of his 
assistants, the latter being assigned the duty of begining the 
survey under the law, by an examination of the iron and 



138 SKETCHES OF THE 

copper ranges of Ashland and Douglas counties, Wisconsin. 
His elaborate report and a supplemental one show that he 
faithfully and efficiently performed the duties assigned him. 
The next year, he was directed to make such explorations and 
surveys as would enable him to construct a geological map 
and section along a line extending from the south part of 
Dane county, Wisconsin, northward, through portions of Co- 
lumbia, Adams, and Wood counties, to Grand Rapids, and 
thence up the Wisconsin river to Wausau; the breadth occu- 
pied to embrace two or three ranges of townships; thence, 
along the southern boundary of the archgean rocks in Wood, 
Clark, and Jackson counties, he was to extend his work west- 
ward to the Black river falls. In his report of the work for 
the season of 1874, he gave much detailed information 
of local interest and importance regarding the dip, thick- 
ness, and economic value of the several rocks examined by 
him. 

O. W.Wight was appointed chief geologist on the sixteenth 
of February, 1875. Dr. Lapham's assistants were requested to 
continue their work under the new appointment. Prof. Irving, 
during the season of 1875, continued his survey of central Wis- 
consin; the result of his labors therein in that year and the 
previous ones, covering a region of about ten thousand square 
miles, and occupying his time in all for more than nine months, 
is given to the world in the "Geology of Wisconsin "(vol.11). 
His report forms Part III. of that work. It treats of (1) Surface 
Features of Central Wisconsin; (2) General Geological Structure 
of Central Wisconsin; (3) the Archrean Rocks; (4) the Lower 
Silurian Rocks; and (5) Quaternary Deposits. Of especial interest 
in this valuable contribution to the geology of the country, arc 
the minute discussions of the river system of central Wiscon- 
sin, a careful study of the interesting kaolin deposits in Wood 
county, an exhaustive discussion of the isolated archaean 
areas, including the Baraboo ranges, the discrimnation of the 
Mendota and Madison limestones, and the location of 'the out- 
line of the drift area. Prof. Irving' s report is the only compre- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN". 139 

hensivo one ever made upon the geology of central Wisconsin. 
It is well written and has received marked attention from 
scientists generally. Of his published efforts, this is the ablest 
and most exhaustive. 

The direction of the geological survey of Wisconsin was 
placed in charge of Prof. T. C. Chamberlin, of B-jloit college, 
in February, 1870, the commissioned assistants retaining 
their connection therewith as before. Prof. Irving, beside 
some work in central Wisconsin, continued his examination of 
the iron and copper-bearing series of Ashland county, begun 
in 1873. For the next s3J,$on, it was planned that his care- 
ful detailed magnetic and geological survey in the vicinity of 
Penokee Gap should be continued eastward to t!ie Potato 
river. For the year 1878, Prof. Irving was occupied, during 
that portion of his time given to the geological survey, in the 
completion of a filial report 0:1 the "Geology of Northern 
Wisconsin. 1 ' This work will soon appear in the "Geology of 
Wisconsin" (vol. Id). It will 1)3 found equal in value, if not 
superior, to his report on central Wisconsin. Together, they 
cannot fail to place him in a prominent position among the 
scientific men of the United States. 

Prof. Irving has contributed a number of able articles to 
the American Journal of Selene :>, and Arts (Silli man's): (1) 
"On the Age of the Quartzites, Schists, and Conglomerates of 
Siuk County, Wisconsin," February, 18 7 1; (2) " Note 0:1 the 
Age of the Metamorphic Rjcks of Portland, Dodge County, 
Wisconsin," April, 1873; (3) " O;i the Age of the Copper- 
Bearing Rocks of Lake Superior,"July, 1874; (4) "Note on Some 
New Points HI the Elemantary Stratification of the Primordial 
and Canadian Rocks of South Central Wisconsin," June, 
1875; (5) " Note on the Youngest Huronian Rocks South of 
Lake Superior," June, 1870; (0) "On the Age of the Crystalline 
Rocks in Wisconsin," April, 1877; (7) "Origin of the Driftless 
Region of the Northwest," April, 1878; (8) "Stratigraphy 
of the Huronian Rocks of Lake Superior," in press. 

As a member of the Wisconsin academy of sciences, arts, 



140 SKETCHES OF THE 

and letters, Prof. Irving has contributed, to its "Transactions," 
several paper? of merit: (1) "On Some Points in the Geolo- 
gy of Northern Wisconsin;" (2) " On a Hand Specimen, 
Showing th- Exact Junction of the Primordial Sandstones 
and Huronian Schists;" (3) "On the Occurrence of Gold and 
Silver in Minute Quantities in Quartz from Clark County, 
Wisconsin;" (4) "On Kaolin in Wisconsin." A contribution, 
by him, to Snyder, Van Vechten, and Company's Historical 
Atlas of Wisconsin, of 1878, on the "Mineral Resources" of 
the state, is a valuable and highly interesting article. 

Some writers upon scientific subjects have what may be 
called a mathematical way of expressing their thoughts. This 
style is characterized by frequent repetitions of prominent 
words, by compactness and terseness that are apt to become 
tiresome. From these mannerisms, Prof. Irving seems entirely 
free; his sentences are symmetrical, but not of that symmetry 
which is wearisome because of its excess. In the employment 
of technical terms, there is a copiousness and familiarity 
observable that is quite remarkable; yet he never descends to 
pedantry. He does not scruple to use scientific words, but 
they always seem old acquaintances and vary necessary. 

It may be said with truth that Prof. Irving is a most excel- 
lent instructor. He is a ready lecturer, is systematic and 
accurate in his methods of teaching, and has the po;ver of 
seizing upon the salient points of a subject and of presenting 
them in a clear and forcible manner. These traits, accom- 
panied with an enthusiasm in the sciences to which he gives 
especial attention, and a strong belief in the value of science 
as a means of education, render him peculiarly successful as a 
teacher. He is a constant, earnest, and thorough student, and 
dislikes sham in all things. 

In 1871, William J. L. Nicodemus, A. M., C. E., was 
elected to the chair of military science and civil and military 
engineering in the University of Wisconsin, as the successor 
of Colonel Walter S. Franklin. He was born August 1, 
1834, at Cold Springs, Virginia. Soon after his birth, his 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 141 

parents moved to Maryland, settling near Hagerstown. 
He received his early education at the country school, 
and was quick to learn. He afterward taught school, occupy- 
ing his winter months in that vocation, and working on a farm 
during the summer. Meanwhile, his abilities and address 
attracted toward him so much attention that, in 1854, he was 
the recipient of an appointment from the member of con- 
gress of his district as cadet to the military academy at West 
Point, entering the institution July 1, of that year, and grad- 
uating July 1, 1858, when he was promoted in the regular 
army to brevet second lieutenant of infantry. 

He began his duties as soldier, in the garrison at New Port 
B irracks, Kentucky, where Ii3 remained until January 19, 
1859, when he was transferred to the frontier as second lieu- 
tenant of the fifth infantry, in which capacity he conduct- 
ed recruits to Utah. He then took part in the Utah expedi- 
tion. Afterward and until 18G1, he served in Forts Fauntle- 
roy, Defiance, and Union, in New Mexico, going upon the 
Navajo expedition, in the year last mentioned. On the four- 
teenth of May, 1861, he was promoted to first lieutenant of the 
eleventh infantry. On the twenty-fourth of October follow- 
ing, he was commissioned captain of the twelfth infantry regi- 
ment, being engaged as acting assistant adjutant-general of 
the department of New Mexico, from that time to June, 1862, 
He took part in the battle of Valverde, February 21, 1862, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in that conflict, was 
brevetted major. He was engaged in opening communication 
batween Fort Craig and Fort Union, in February arid March 
following, and was in various skirmishes. In September, he 
was on recruiting service at Cincinnati, during a threatened 
attack upon that city. On the eleventh of October, he was 
appointed colonel of the fourth regiment of Maryland volun- 
teers, joining this regiment in the h'eld, but ordered after- 
ward with his force to Baltimore to guard recruits. Ho 
resigned that office on the seventeenth of November following. 

On the twentieth of February, 1803, he was given signal 



142 SKETCHES OF THE 

duty and continued in that service until August 23, 18G5, hav- 
ing- first the command of the '-signal camp of instruction;' 1 then 
of the signal detachment in the department of West Virginia, 
in charge also of the signal line between Harper's Ferry and 
Washington: then of the signal detachment with the army of 

O * 

the Potomac on the pursuit of the enemy through Maryland, in 
July, 1833, participating in several skirmishes, b_>ing commis- 
sioned major of the signal corps, the eighteenth of September 
to rank from March 3, previous. He was then put in charge 
of the signal bureau at Washington, and was in command of the 
signal corps, from October 13, 1803, to December 26, 1804, 
being commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the latter June 30, of 
the year last mentioned, to rank from March 3, 1803. He was 
made inspector of the same corps March 31, 18155, serving to 
August 23, following, when lie was mustered out and restored 
to his regiment the twelfth infantry to rank from October 24, 
1801. He served from September, 1803, to the year 1808, in gar- 
risons at Fort Hamilton, New York; Richmond, Petersburg, and 
Frederieksburg, Virginia ; and at Washington; when he was 
detailed to give instruction in military science and tactics in 
the Western university at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Here 
he remained two years. He was honorably discharged from 
th3 army on tha twenty-ninth of Djcsmhsr, 1870, under an 
act of congress of that year, and was, on the eighteenth of 
January following, elected to a professorship in the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

In February, 1871, he entered upon the duties of his new 
position. Ambitious and energetic, he soon gave life to 
the department to which he had been called. He thorough- 
ly remodeled the course in civil engineering, and soon drew 
around him a number of students of that specialty, winning 
from thsin, by his thorough but kindly manliness, by his enthusi- 
astic devotion to their wants, and by his efforts for their subse- 
quent welfare, a warm and lasting regard. Equal success 
crowned his efforts in the department of military science, 
where he succeeded in making both popular and useful the 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 143 

drill, which before liad .always been extremely irksome to the 
students. His genial manner and varied experience made 
him a very pleasant companion, and he soon \von the regard 
of his fellow workers at the University.* As professor of one 
of the technical courses, the classes instructed by Prof. Nico- 
demus were small, and the relationship between teacher and 
student correspondingly close. Though he met the regular 
college students but for one term in the class-room, it was not 
difficult for them to discern, in that short time, those genial 
heart-qualities, that almost womanly tenderness, which made 
him the warm personal friend of every worthy man, who mado 
his acquaintance. A more striking illustration of the es- 
teem in which the students held Major Nicodemus could not 
be found than the spirit manifested toward him at all times by 
the university battalion. No man could have been more suc- 
cessful in eliciting an interest in an irksome duty than was he 
in conducting the military exercises. f 

The connection of Prof. Nicodemus with the geological sur- 
vey of Wisconsin began by his being employed to prepare maps 
for an annual report. In 1875, he was regularly commissioned 
topographical assistant of the survey and personally prepared 
or superintended the preparation of all the maps for the report 
of that year. Tde next year a regular plan for the maps to 
accompany the volumes of the final report was adopted, and 
he was entrusted with their preparation. In his report for 
1870, the state geologist says: u Prof. Nicodemus has been 
actively engaged in compiling the geographical data for 
the maps, and in drawing them upon a uniform and accurate 
scale. Each township has been carefully built up from the 
notes and plats of the original government linear surveys, and 

*Sco Appendix to Annual Report of the Wisconsin Geological Survey, 
for the year 1878, where is to be found an excellent paper in memory of 
Prof. Nicodemus, prepared by Prof. Allan D. Conover, of the University 
of Wisconsin. 

f Adapted from tho USIVEKSITY PRESS, (Madison, Wisconsin.) Jan- 
uary 17, 1819. 



144 SKETCHES OF THE 

the natural features have been compiled from a large collec- 
tion of state, sectional, county, township, and special maps." 
" The work of this department [drafting], 1 ' says the chief 
geologist, in 1877, " which assumes increasing importance in 
the preparation of the final report, has continued," as hereto- 
fore, mainly in the hands of Prof. Win. J. L. Nicodemus and 
Mr. A. D. Conover, of the State University. They have, dur- 
ing the year, completed the drawing of the maps for the atlas 
accompanying volume II. of the final report, and a portion of 
those for the remaining volumes; and several others are in 
various degrees of advancement." In his report for 1878, the 
state geologist remarks: "Prof. W. J. L. Nicodemus, topo- 
graphical assistant to the survey, and Mr. A. D. Gonover, of tiie 
State University, who have previously done the larger part of 
the drafting of the geological maps, have completed those 
assigned them for the atlas that is to accompany volume III. 
of the final report, and have made progress with other work 
placed in their hands." 

Since his connection with the University of Wisconsin, 
Prof. Nicodemus had more than once been tempted to leave; 
and, among other proffers, he received one from General 
Sherman, with whom he was personally well acquainted, asking 
him to accept a position as professor of mathematics at twenty- 
five hundred dollars per annum, in gold, in a college just 
being started by the Khedive of Egypt. Of modest, retiring 
disposition, Prof. Nicodemus rarely spoke of himself or of his 
many experiences. Possessed of a large store of nervous force, 
he rapidly and efficiently accomplished whatever he took in 
hand. Ambitious to provide for the wants of his family, 
should they ever be left without his care, he felt pressed to en- 
gage in business enterprises outside of the duties of his pro- 
fessorship. As he was never slack in his duty to the University, 
he must have drawn very largely on his vitality, to accomplish 
the work he undertook. This is more especially true of the 
past university year, when, burdened more than usually with the 
needs for instruction in his growing department, and with his 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 145 

work for the geological survey, he shared largely in the labor, 
the risks, and anxieties consequent ou publishing, along with 
A. D. Conover, a large and very accurate map of Wisconsin. 
The draft on his nervous system proved great, and brought on 
insomnia-, which finally developed alarmingly. He died in 
Madison, on the sixth of January. 1879, and was buried 
near that city, in the beautiful Catholic cemetery of Forest 
Hiil.* The position he occupied in the University he contin- 
ued to fill most acceptably until his death. He was married, 
in Georgetown, I). C., to Miss Fannie E. Pettit, December 
27, 1804. 

In 1875 was published a "Rand-Book for Charcoal Burn- 
ers," a Swedish work, translated by Prof. R. B. Anderson 
of the University of Wisconsin, and edited with notes by Prof. 
Nicodemus. The original work is by G. Svedelius, and is 
probably the best treatise on the manufacture of charcoal ever 
written. Prof. Anderson's translation is admirable. The 
notes of Prof. Nicodemus add to the interest and value of the 
book. The twenty-three wood engravings illustrating the text, 
are well executed. Prof. Nicodemus had prepared, at date of 
his death, and nearly finished what was, at first, intended only 
as a translation of Reauleaux's "Manual of Civil Engineering,'' 
(the volume containing tables); but, under his hands, it de- 
veloped into a much more complete manual of tables than the 
original. 

Prof. Nicodemus was a member of the Wisconsin academy 
of sciences, arts, and letters, and contributed to its " Trans- 
actions " several papers that are commendable riot only for 
what he says, but for the way he clothes his thoughts. These 
contributions are (1) "On the Wisconsin River Improvement;" 
(2) "Railway Gauges; 1 ' (3) "The Ancient Civilization of 
America." " Tha ancient works," he truly and clearly says, in 
the last mentioned paper, "divide themselves into three 
great geographical divisions, namely: South America, on the 

^Sec Annual Report Wisconsin Geological Survey, 1878, pp. 50, 51. 



146 SKETCHES OF THE 

west coast between Chili and the second degree of north lati- 
tude; Central America and Mexico; and the valleys of the 
Mississippi and Ohio." He has given to the periodical press a 
number of articles, notably one on " Telegraphy " and another 
on "Tunneling, printed in the UNIVERSITY PJRESS, Madison, 
Wisconsin, in October and November, 1871. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE EIGHTEENTH UNIVERSITY YEAH PROGRESS OF RECON- 
STRUCTION A FEMALE COLLEGE ESTABLISHED DEPART- 
MENTS OF AGRICULTURE AND OF ENGINEERING AND MILITARY 
TACTICS ORGANIZED A LAW DEPARTMENT CREATED RECON- 
STRUCTION ACCOMPLISHED NINETEENTH UNIVERSITY YEAR 
PROF. ALEXANDER KERR. 

On the twenty-eighth of August, 18G7, began the eigh- 
teenth year of the University of Wisconsin. It ended June 
24, 1808, with the graduation of Thomas B. Chynoweth, Her- 
bert W. Chynoweth, and Frederick S. Stein, in the class- 
ical course; George W. Holland, Isaac S. Leavitt, Morgan J. 
Smith, John G. Taylor, James Turner, and Charles E. Vro- 
man, in the scientific course. A. H. Salisbury, of the class of 
18G4, delivered the oration before the alumni association, and 
W. W. Church, of the class of 1SG1, read the poem. 

Before the begin ing of the next university year, recon- 
struction had gone forward so rapidly that there had been es- 
tablished, as branches of the college of arts, a department of 
military tactics and civil engineering, and one of agriculture. 
The object of the former was, to give instruction in engineer- 
ing and also in military tactics; of the latter, to instruct stu- 
dents who might desire it, in agriculture and practical chem- 
istry. There had also been created, under the reconstruction 
act authorizing professional and other colleges, a law department 
and a female college; the object of the one was the furnishing 



SKETCHES OF THE 

of instruction to students desirous of becoming members of 
the legal profession; of the other, to furnish a thorough edu- 
cation to ladies, this college being the one formerly known as 
the normal department, from which, for that reason, there 
were no graduates at the end of the eighteenth university 
year. 

Colonel W. R. Pease of the United States army took charge 
of the department of engineering and military tactics; W. W. 
Daniells, that of agriculture. In the law department, J. H. 
Carpenter was appointed dean of the faculty and professor of 
law, and William F. Vilas also a professor. Orsamus Cole 
and Byron Paine, associate justices of the supreme court 
of Wisconsin, consented to accept professorships in the 
game department, and to lecture therein gratuitously when 
their official duties would permit. 

As additional reconstruction measures, there were establish- 
ed by the regents, a post graduate course, the object of which 
was to secure a higher degree of sholarship in literature and 
science than could be attained in colleges under the ordinary 
class-system; also, a preparatory department, which had already 
existed in the institution, and which was thought would have 
to be continued so long as the high schools in the state were 
not sufficiently developed to furnish the necessary prepara- 
tion for students at the University. Another measure adopt- 
ed was, the admission of students who might not desire to enter 
either college, to such lectures and recitations as previous pre- 
parations would justify and for such time as they might 
choose; but they were to be governed as to attendance and 
punctuality, in all respects as though belonging to the reg- 
ular college classes. 

The female college was to have its own building and public 
rooms and a separate board of instruction. The building and 
everything relating to the government of the college were to be 
under the special direction of a preceptress, the same as was 
the case in the normal department before its abolishment. 
The president of the University and the professors were to give 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 149 

instruction to the ladies, and the latter were to have the privi- 
lege of attending the University lectures; but all recitations and 
other exercises were to be entirely distinct from those of other 
colleges. There w.ere yet barriers of prejudice to be removed; 
but substantial progress had been made; and it was already 
clearly to be seen that the day was not far distant when ladies 
would be admitted to recite in all of the University classes. 

The faculty and instructors of the institution, for the 
eighteenth university year, were Paul A. Chadbourne, pres- 
ident and professor of mental and moral philosophy; John 
"W. Sterling, professor of natural philosophy and astronomy; 
John B. Parkinson, professor of mathematics; S. H. Carpen- 
ter, professor of rhetoric and English literature; William 
F. Allen, professor of ancient languages and history; John 
B. Feuling, professor of modern languages and compara- 
tive philology; W. R. Pease, professor of military engineer- 
ing and tactics; W. W. Daniells, professor of agriculture; John 
E. Davies, professor of chemistry and natural history; Addison 
E. Verrill, professor of comparative anatomy and entomology; 
Orsamus Cole, Byron Paine, and William F. Vilas, profes- 
sors of law; J. H. Carpenter, dean of the law faculty and also 
professor of law; Amos H. Thompson, tutor; Isaac S. Leavitt, 
instructor in English branches; Elizabeth Earle, preceptress; 
Clarissa L. Ware, associate preceptress; Francis Brown, teach- 
er of music; and Louisa Brewster, teacher of drawing and 
painting. 

The department of agriculture, when put into practical oper- 
ation, included a course of study in botany, practical agricul- 
ture, physical geography and climatology, practical botany, 
horticulture, chemistry, zoology, organic chemistry, analytical 
chemistry, forestry, geology, agricultural chemistry, animal 
husbandry, and history of agricultural education. This course 
might be completed in a single year by advanced students, 
or it might require three years for its completion. The experi- 
mental farm was to be connected with this department, and 
worked under the direction of the professor of agriculture. "I 



150 SKETCHES OF THE 

received my appointment," says Prof. Daniells, in his first re- 
port (1868), in "February last, when there were neither teams, 
buildings, nor tools of any kind upon the farm." But im- 
provements were immediately commenced, and the work 
went forward rapidly; for, in their report for the year end- 
ing September 30, 18(58, the regents say: " A great deal 
of labor has been performed in this [the agricultural] d- 
partment, during the past year, especially upon the grounds 
purchased for the experimental farm. The stumps and stones' 
have been removed; experiments have been made with the 
planting of corn and potatoes; a vineyard has been commenc- 
ed; an arbor-vit;e hedge, a row of Norway spruce, and sixteen 
hundred evergreens have been planted; drives and roads have 
been constructed; fences have been removed and put up, 
throwing the entire land in one enclosure; land has been pre- 
pared for future crops and experiments; a large and substan- 
tial barn has been built; and a good farm-house for the super- 
intendent is in process of erection." The faculty of this de- 
partment consisted of Paul A. Chadbourne, president; \V. 
"W. Daniells, professor of agriculture and analytical chem- 
istry; John E. Davies, professor of chemistry and natural 
history; and Addison E. Verrill, professor of comparative 
anatomy and entomology. 

The department of engineering and military tactics, when 
fully organized, required all the male students of the Univer- 
sity to be formed into a battalion of two or more companies, 
under command of the professor in charge. An armory was 
provided; and proper rules for the government of the depart- 
ment were drawn up and adopted by the regents, perfecting the 
organization; also regulating the appointment of officers for the 
companies and their length of. service; prescribing a proper 
uniform for the battalion; instituting proper military exercises; 
adopting a course of study, which was to comprise, among 
other things, civil and military engineering, tactics, ordnance 
and gunnery, militai , law and practice of courts-martial, and 
army regulations; enforcing discipline; providing for a merit 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 151 

roll; constituting a board of examiners; arranging for diplo- 
mas; and prescribing the necessary text-books. The faculty of 
this department consisted of Paul A. Cliadbourne, president, 
and Colonel W. R. Pease, professor of military tactics and 
engineering. 

The law department admitted students at any time, but 
those who were not graduates were required to be twenty 
years of age. The course of instruction, which included the 
domestic relations, contracts, criminal 'aw, bailments, bills and 
notes, personal property, evidence, corporations, agency, part- 
nerships, mercantile law, pleading, real property, equity juris- 
prudence, leading cases, constitutional law, and the conflict of 
laws, was to be completed in one year. The first term of the 
school was opened with a class of ten students. The faculty 
consisted of Paul A. Chadbourne, president; Orsamus Cole, 
professor and lecturer on domestic relations; Byron Paine, 
professor and lecturer on practice; J. H. Carpenter, dean and 
professor, and instructor on contracts, criminal law, personal 
and real property, wills, and equity jurisprudence; and Wm. 
F. Vilas, professor and instructor in evidence and pleading. 

Reconstruction was now accomplished. " Its good results 
were immediately evident in an enlarged public confidence 
and an almost total change in the temper of the people of the 
state toward the University. The prominence given to scien- 
tific studies seemed to place the institution more in accord 
with the dominant thought of the age, and to meet an actual 
want, as was shown by a large and steady increase in the num- 
ber of students." u It is with unfeigned pleasure and satis- 
faction," said the president of the board of regents, in his re- 
port for the fiscal year ending September 30, 18G8, " that I 
make the announcement that the efforts of those to whom the 
management of the University has been confided have been 
crowned with success during the past year, that the present 
condition of the institution is highly favorable, and its affairs 
and the results so far attained are satisfactory and full of 
promise for the future." 



152 SKETCHES OF THE 

On the twenty-sixth of August, 1868, began the nineteenth 
university year. As six ladies were members of the senior 
class, it was necessary before its close to determine what de- 
grees should be conferred upon them. The regents finally 
resolved that they should be honored with " the same as those 
conferred upon male students," providing " the same courses 
of study " had been " satisfactorily completed." As there was 
no doubt, on that score, in the minds of the faculty, the year 
ended June 23, 1869, with the graduation of E. L. Cassels, 
W. C. Damon, F. J. Knight, I. S. Leavitt, and John G. 
Taylor, in the classical course, as bachelors of arts; and 
Clara D. Bewick, Hirarn M. Corbett, David B. Franken- 
burger, Annie Hayden, Jane E. Nagle, Helen V. Noble, 
George Sylvester, Lizzie S. Spencer, and Ella U. Turner, in 
the scientific course, as bachelors of philosophy. The oration 
before the alumni association was delivered by Philip Stein 
of the class of 1865. The poem was read by M. S. Griswold 
of the class of 1863. There were graduated, from the law 
department, Thomas Bohan, John T. Bradley, James M. 
Bull, J. P. Cheever, Francis Downs, Lorin Edwards, G. 
A. Forest, F. T. Knapper, M. N. Lando, William Murray, 
P. H. O'Rourke, and Henry Vilas. on each of whom was 
conferred the degree of bachelor of laws. Four graduates 
three of the University and one of another institution availed 
themselves, at this date, of the post graduate course. These 
were K. B. Anderson, I. S. Leavitt, A. H. Southworth, and 
John G. Taylor. 

In 1871, Alexander Kerr, A. M., was elected, by the 
regents, professor of the Greek language and literature, 
in the University of Wisconsin. He was born in Aber- 
deenshire, Scotland, August 15, 1828. When he was six 
vears of age, his parents emigrated to Cornwall, Canada; and, 
in 1841, they removed to Rockford, Illinois, where his boy- 
hood was passed in doing farm-work in summer, and in enjoy- 
ing the meagre advantages of a country school during winter. 
Fortunately, one of his teachers taught French and he early 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 153 

learned to read that language with facility. This awakened in 
him a desire for a more liberal education. Accordingly, at the 
age of twenty-one, he became a member of a classical school 
in Rockford where he was fitted for college, entering as a 
sophomore, at Beloit college, Wisconsin, in the fall of 1852, 
and graduating in 1855, with the highest honors of his class. 
The degree of master of arts was afterward conferred upon 
him by his alma mater. 

In November, 1855, he went to Georgia where he taught 
nearly six years. During 1856 and 1857, he was at the 
head of the classical and scientific academy at Houston, in 
that state-, but in 1858, he was chosen professor of mathemat- 
ics at Brownwood Institute, a well-established and popular 
school for boys, near La Grange. At the close of 1858, he re- 
ceived the offer of a more lucrative situation that of principal 
of a private academy, four miles from Brownwood which he 
accepted. Here he remained until the secession of Georgia in 
1861, when he returned to Rockford and was soon after ap- 
pointed superintendent of schools of Winnebago county, to fill 
the unexpired term of his brother, James B. Kerr, who had 
raised a company for the war. Here was a good field for 
educational work, which he cultivated assiduously. It gave 
him an excellent opportunity to study the school system of the 
north. He was enthusiastic in his new calling and untiring in 
his visitations and institute labors. 

In 1863, Prof. Kerr resigned the office of county superinten- 
dent to take charge of the public schools of Beloit, Wisconsin. 
Here he labored eight years. Under his supervision, these 
schools took high rank. The course of study in the high 
school was so extended that class after class was fitted to enter 
college. This classical training was a new thing for the 
high schools of Wisconsin; and it gave the one under charge 
of Prof. Kerr considerable prominence, attracting attention 
elsewhere to his labors. The result was he received invita- 
tions to take charge of the schools of Racine, Wisconsin, and 
Rockford, Illinois. He was also invited to a chair in the uni- 



154' SKETCHES OF THE 

versity of Missouri. All these offers he declined. He accept- 
ed, however, the chair offered him in the University of Wis- 
consin, entering upon his duties as professor of the Greek 
language and literature, in June, 1871. This chair he has con- 
tinued to fill, to the present time, with ability and credit. 
Upon his leaving Beloit, the Beloit Free Press spoke in high 
praise of his untiring labors and unselfish zeal in the up-build- 
ing of the schools at that place, and of the success attending 
his efforts. 

Prof. Kerr is an active member of the state teachers' associa- 
tion and was its president, in 1869. He has been a member of 
the board of education of the city of Madison continuously 
since the first of January, 1873. No man in Wisconsin, per- 
haps, has been more assiduous, in bringing into harmoni/ing 
relations the four branches of the system of public education of 
the state the district schools, the graded schools, the normal 
schools, and the University. 

Prof. Kerr, though not a writer of books, has not been "silent" 
with his pen. His writings, as might be expected, have been 
largely upon educational topics; for the professor is essential- 
ly an educationist. His style is clear and vigorous; his periods 
are well turned; his thoughts, fresh and strong; his imagina- 
tion vivid and far-reaching. With such a cast of mind, he 
could not refrain at times, if he would, from courting 
"the Muses fair;" and, that he has done this effectively, the 
following brief extract, from a poem entitled "Atlantis," 
abundantly shows: 

"Back in those shadowy halls of time, 
Where passed a retinue sublime, 
Marching with such a sounding tread 
That the long echo is not dead 
Tho' twice a thousand years have fled, 
Since wept for them the fair and young 
Since mournfully the cypress hung 
Above them its funereal bough, 
Earth had her dreaming sons as now. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 155 

They were the men who could discern 
The golden years once more return; 
And, in their dream of rapture, they 
Forgot the miseries of to-day. '' 

There runs through many of 'Ins poetic effusions a delicate*- 
tiessof feeling that is really attractive; as, for example, in these 
verses from a poem entitled 

COLLEGE DAYS. 

" Let us turn to these happy days of ours 
That were fresh with the odor and bloom of flowers ; 
Let us look through the hazy atmosphere 
That over them hangs like a mist on the mere. 

Those college days, they were wondrous fair! 
They were free from the haunting visage of can 1 ; 
Free from the bitter draughts we drink, 
As we sit by the wayside of life to think, 

As wanderers on a distant shore 
Dream of a home they shall visit no more, 
And fix on the sea their longing gaze, 
Thus turn we to our college days." 

Of Prof. Kerr's contributions to the periodical press, the 
one entitled " Colleges and Common Schools, " published in 
the Wisconsin Journal of Education, has these opening para- 
graphs, which clearly illustrate the attractiveness of his style 
and the strength of his thoughts: 

"In a great manufacturing establishment, every operative 
learns to perform with precision and consummate skill the part 
assigned to him, and hands his work finished, in a faultless con- 
dition, over to his next neighbor. We go through such an es- 
tablishment, and while we know little about the details of the 
several processes, the perfect adaptation of means to ends, and 
the uniform success in realizing a given design, challenge our 
admiration. 

"We enter a common school, and we find a veacher who 
does not know the difference between perception and reflec- 



156 SKETCHES OF THE 

tion, begining at the wrong end ohis work by trying to beat 
an abstraction, which he does not understand himself^ into the 
mind of a child. The teacher means well, but he ought to go to 
the normal school or somewhere else and learn how dangerous 
it is to experiment with human souls. To hinder an im- 
mortal soul from future growth and enjoyment is a serious 
thing. Hence, we believe that the common school should not 
only give thorough training in the rudiments of an education, 
but also give the pupils such an impetus in the pursuit of 
knowledge as shall make them dissatisfied with mere begin- 
nings and shall render higher attainments indispensable." 

Of Prof. Kerr's educational addresses, one of the most nota- 
ble, is that on, " What shall Constitute an Educational Pro- 
gramme?" delivered by him at Oshkosh, July 7, 1869, as pres- 
ident of the state teachers' association. "The state needs 
men and women who know the meaning of independent 
thought," said the speaker, "and who have rational views of 
life and duty; and the state will get such men and women by 
fostering liberal studies, by encouraging all who show signs of 
intellectural power to aim at the highest culture. Classical 
training is, perhaps, the best agency for detecting the pres- 
ence of intellectual power, and preparing the mind to grapple 
with the difficulties of any department of knowledge. Be- 
sides, it introduces the student to a literature, which, w:th its 
calm dignity and beauty, is an admirable check to the rushing 
haste of steam engines and the tendency of our people toward 
the insane hospital. I think it is the verdict of the best minds 
in this country that the classics must have a place in our edu- 
cational programme. The demand for improved facilities for 
the study of them was never so great as it is at present." 

In a paper read before the executive session of the state 
teachers' association of Wisconsin, at Madison, December 28, 
1877, in memory of Prof. O. R. Smith, occurs this striking 
paragraph: 

"Happilv for the growth and progress of humanity, there is 
a tendency, in this country at least, to hold titles at a discount 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 157 

and put a premium on. men. The strong common sense of the 
intelligent American prompts him to think less of the degrees 
which universities confer than of the ability to do good work 
in som ) useful department of industry. And when this ability 
is honesfly exerted in bringing the community to recognize 
the supremacy and dignity of law, in strengthening the ideas 
of self-respect and manly independence, in creating a taste for 
rational pleasures, and in helping those who would otherwise 
be defrauded of their intellectual rights and privileges to 
make the most of themselves, the man who thus exerts his 
power is deserving of respect and honor." 

A paper read by Prof. Kerr before the same association, in 
July, 1878, on "Standards of Admission to College " is an able 
effort, and has attracted much attention. It covers the field 
of investigation in which the professor takes so much interest, 
namely: the methods being employed by the University of 
Wisconsin to establish vital relations with the high schools 
of the state. This subject cannot be too much agitated, nor too 
much thought upon, by educationists of Wisconsin. Especially 
should the president and professors of the University continue 
often to meet on common ground the teachers and superintend- 
ents of the public schools of the state, that there may be a 
reciprocity of action and of feeling. One of the last, though 
not least, of Prof. Kerr's efforts in an educational way was the 
reading of a paper before the assembled teachers of the state 
in December, 1878, entitled, " How May Teachers Keep Out 
of Ruts?" He pays, therein, this most admirable tribute of 
respect to the memory of his late associate, Dr. Carpenter: 

"Our friend and fellow-laborer, Prof. S. H. Carpenter, who 
has just closed his brilliant record as a teacher, is a fitting 
illustration of the power thus gained [that is, the influence of 
liberal studies and wide reading, in keeping the mind fresh 
and vigorous as the years of life pass on]. Possessing a gift- 
ed and vigorous mind, he had enriched it with the best 
treasures of various languages and literatures, Greek, Anglo- 
Saxon, French, and English. His versatile attainments and 



158 SKETCHES OF THE 

catholic tastes were widely respected and admired outside of 
university circles. But, before his classes, his scholarship and 
culture showed to greatest advantage. Here was a man in 
the place for which nature intended him. No wonder that, he 
used to thank God for the opportunity to teach; for teaching 
was, to him, a positive pleasure. His students will not soon 
forget how his learning took the form of living thought, giv- 
ing light and suggestion to their perplexed minds, and how 
the varied experience of his eventful life enabled him to give 
them needful and wise counsel in their discouragements. He 
has fallen by a swift and untimely death. Let his example, 
which yet speaks to us, incite our younger teachers to bring 
to their work the preparation which comes from accurate study 
and wide culture," 

Prof. Kerr is enthusiastic upon the subject which he teaches. 
He doubtless believes, with another excellent scholar of 
our country, that "the sacred debt our language owes to an- 
cient Greek only increases with each advance in science, 
philosophy, and the art of expression;" that "its plastic nature 
fits it for meeting all the new exigencies ot scientific nomen- 
clature;" and that " our poets must always find their rythms 
and their inspiration in the Attic masterpieces."* As an in- 
structor, Prof. Kerr is careful and painstaking, clear and 
methodical. He is quick to know what the student has ac- 
complished; and he succeeds in holding attention to, and in 
inspiring enthusiasm in, a study that sometimes becomes tedi- 
ous and dry because of difficulties and abstruseness. 

*Prof. Edward Xorlh, on " The English Language," in an address at 
Ithaca, New York, Febrnarv 18. 1879. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



DR. JOHN BASCOM. 

In the month of February, 187'4, John Bascom, LL. D., of 
Williams college, Williamstown, Massachusetts, was elected, 
by the regents, president of the University, as the successor of 
Dr. Twombly. He was born May 1, 1827, in Genoa, New 
York. His parents were John Bascom and Laura Woodbridge 
Bascom. His early education was obtained in the common 
schools of his native place; he received none other until the age 
of seventeen, when he entered Homer academy in Courtland 
county. Here he fitted for college, entering the freshman 
class at Williams a year afterward. He graduated in 1849, 
with the degree of master of arts, and was awarded the 
philosophical oration. His father and two uncles were pre- 
vious graduates of the same institution. 

The first year after graduation was employed by him as 
principal of the Ball seminary, in Hoosac Falls, New York. 
He then went to Rochester, in the same state, where he read 
law for one year, but did not enter upon its practice. He 
then entered the Auburn theological seminary as a student, 
where he remainded one year, returning, in 1852. to Wil- 
liams college, in which institution he had been appointed 
tutor. He held this position one year and was, for the 
first term of the year following, an instructor in the evidences 
of Christianity and in political economy. This office he 
was obliged to resign on account of a severe affection of 
his eyes. 



160 SKETCHES OF THE 

He spent the first portion of the year 1854, in Boston, un- 
der treatment. In September, of that year, notwithstanding- 
he had then lost the use of his eyes, he entered as a student 
the thelogical seminary at Andover, graduating the year 
after. For a period ol six years following his entrance to 
this institution, he was almost entirely deprived of his eye- 
sight; so that, during that time, and for six years subse- 
quent thereto, all his literary work, both of acquisition and 
composition, was performed by the aid of an amanuensis. After 
his graduation at Andover, he returned to Williams college, 
where, in 1855, he entered upon the duties of professor of 
rhetoric. The degree of doctor of laws was conferred upon 
him by Aniherst college, in 1873, and that of "doctor of di- 
vinity by Grinnell college, in 1875. 

Prof. Bascom continued to occupy the chair of rhetoric in 
Williams college until 1874, with the exception of one year, in 
which he was absent on a visit to Europe, when, at the com- 
mencement of the summer term of that year, he entered upon 
the presidency of the University of Wisconsin, which position 
he has since filled with signal ability. After assuming the 
responsibilities of the office, the first change of importance 
affecting the institution, was, the removal of all remaining 
traces of distinction in instruction and opportunities between 
the sexes. 

The next important step taken was the securing from the 
legislature of the state, an appropriation for the erection oi 
of science hall. Into this building, the scientific instruction of 
the University was gathered and sustained b abundant ap- 
pliances. It also gave the opportunity for more thorough di- 
vision of work between the several professors. The next step 
of progress was the obtaining of a more extended and perma- 
nent income for the institution. This was effected by the pas- 
sage of a law levying a tax of one-tenth of a mill upon the taxa- 
ble property of the state. Following this, was the securing 
of an astronomical observatory, erected and furnished by 
ex-Governor C. C. Washburn, of Wisconsin. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 161 

A still further progressive step is the erection of a library 
and assembly hall. Tho library, especially, by the increased 
opportunities it will offer for consultation, will, it is expected, 
afford very important aid to instruction in the University. 
There has also been a marked increase for the coming year in the 
instructional force of the institution. A steady effort has been 
made to advance the terms of admission to the University and 
the grade of work accomplished therein. The regents, in con- 
tinuation of this effort, have voted to remove the preparatory 
course after 1880, with the exception only of one year in the 
Greek and Latin. 

At the date of Prof. Bascom's election to the professorship 
of rhetoric in Williams college, Prof. A. L. Perry was giving 
instruction in that institution in political economy. In con- 
sequence of discussions with him and at his suggestion, Prof. 
Bascom was induced to write a work on that subject, designed 
as a text-book for colleges. It was published in 1859, and was 
his first effort in authorship. The book was adopted in Yale and 
other institutions. This may be said to have been a pioneer 
work upon political economy. The author, though acknowl- 
edging that " a science which comes in contact with the inter- 
ests of men, which lies in the region of daily action and desire, 
will find its theories more frequently questioned, and its 
proofs more severely tried, than one which has to do with the 
relations of abstract ideas, or the facts of the external world," 
succeeded, notwithstanding, in laying down theories and in 
bringing forward proofs, in the building up of his system, that 
has well withstood the questioning and the trials, of which he 
speaks. 

Prof. Bascom's next work was entitled, "^Esthetics; or, the 
Science of Beauty," and was published in 1802. It was the 
publication of sixteen lectures which had been written, as the 
author declares, "with a desire to supply the want of an ex- 
clusive and compact treatise on the principles of taste." It 
was his aim to combine and present in a systematic form such 
facts and principles as constitute the department of taste; and, 



162 SKETCHES OF THE 

as far as might be, to make good its claims to the rank of a 
distinct science. The book h^s passed through a number of 
editions and has been extendedly used as a text-book. 

The third eifort of Prof. Bascom as an author was the pub- 
lishing, in 1865, of a work entitled "Philosophy of Rhetoric." 
The work was chiefly designed for the later years of collegiate 
instruction; its aim was, to give principles .as well as the rules 
on which excellence in language depends. In this book, the 
author draws an admirable distinction between science and art. 
" Sciences and arts," says he, u though closely related, are, in 
themselves, quite distinct. This difference we need to under- 
stand for the right apprehension of either. A science has ref- 
erence to an intellectual end; an art, to a practical end: the 
one informs and gratifies the mind bv a knowledge of the 

> O 

real character and dependencies of things; the other guides 
and fortifies life in their use and government." 

In 1869, Prof. Bascom published his fourth book, a work 
entitled " The Principles of Psychology." This he gave to 
the public not from any desire to furnish a text-book upon 
that subject, but from his general interest in the topic dis- 
cussed. Since the early editions, the work has been consider- 
ably enlarged. "To the few who think, investigate, and seek 
the substance of things," said the San Francisco Bulletin, "the 
readino- o f this book will be a rare delig-ht. It is the most 

O o 

important contribution in mental science recently given to the 
public." 

The fifth publication by Prof. Bascom was a work on "Sci- 
ence, Philosophy, and Religion," a publication, in book 
form, of twelve lectures, in part an extension of principles 
previously published by the author, the object being to de- 
velope the central doctrines of man's intellectual constitution 
in new directions and more firmly to establish them in old ones. 
This book was first issued from the press in 1871, the lectures 
o- ; ven therein having, before that time, been delivered by Prof. 
Bascom in the Lowell institute, Boston. Said the Boston 
Commonwealth: "The book is religious, thoughtful, some- 
times brilliant, and uncommonly refreshing." 



UNIVERSITY OF SviSCOtfiSLN". 163 

la 1874, was published Dr. Bascom's "Philosophy of Eng- 
lish Literature," which, like his " Science, Philosophy, and 
Religion ," was a publication of a course of lectures twelve 
in number delivered in the Lowell Institute. The object of 
this, the author's sixth book, was to put the general reader and 
the student of English literature into early possession of the 
leading influences operative in it, and thus to enable them to 
peruse and to study its numerous productions with more 
insight, more pleasure, a better mastery of relations, and a 
more ready retention of facts. This work is used considerably 
as a textrbook. Of it, the Utica Herald said: "The book is 
one which cannot be too highly recommended to those who 
have begun to think earnestly, or care to begin." 

Dr. Bascom's most elaborate book the seventh of his pub- 
lications was issued from the press in 1870, and is a work of 
nearly six hundred pages, octavo. It is entitled "A Philoso- 
phy of Religion." The purpose had in view by the author was 
a clear pointing out of that in the constitution of the mind, 
which justifies and supports religious faith, the antecedent con- 
ditions of philosophy which are essential to the Christian sys- 
tem, and the beliefs concerning the soul of man which infold 
ultimately the fortunes of religion. 

Dr. Bascom's eighth and last book given to the public, is a 
work issued in 1878, on "Comparative Psychology; or, the 
Growth and Grades of Intelligence." It was the nurpose of 
the author in this volume to test the nature and extent of the 
modifications put upon human psychology by its relations in 
growth to the life below it, and in doing this to reach a general 
statement of each stage of development. " The volume," 
said the New York Tribune, "is evidently the fruit of wide 
study, profound reflection, and original strength. It follows 
the method of the best modern writers on the philosophy of 
the mind, in making intelligent vise of the results of physio- 
logical science, although it does not neglect the philosophical 
questions which give vitality and substance to all speculative 
inquiries. President Bascom traverses a large field, though he 



164 SKETCHES OF THE 

is so accomplished a master of expression that he presents the 
results of his researches in a brief compass. His little book 
contains the marrow of profound investigations, and presents 
a rich variety of knowledge and suggestion in a singularly 
attractive form." 

A work entitled "Ethics," President Bascom has now in 
press. It is a general discussion and presentation of moral 
science. This book, when issued, will be the ninth volume 
from his fertile pen, given to the public. All his works have 
a philosophical bearing; all are analytical in their treatment of 
subjects; and all are characterized by their depth of thought. 
Dr. Basconfs contributions to the periodical press, as might 
be expected, have been numerous. They may be grouped under 
the general heads of metaphysics, social and economic ques- 
tions, reviews, popular essays, sermons, and agricultural ad- 
dresses. The subjects discussed take an extended range. 
From January, I860, to October, 1875, there were published 
from his pen, in the Bibliotkcca Sacra, not less than nineteen 
articles; including, among others, "Intuitive Ideas" and "Utili- 
tarianism," in 1866; "Conscience" and "Cause and Effect," 1867; 
"The Human Intellect," 1870; "Instinct," 1871; "The Influence 
of the Press" and "The Influence of the Pulpit," 1872; "The 
Nation" and "Taine's English Literature," 1873; "Professor 
Albert Hopkins" and "Consciousness," in 1875. To the same 
periodical were communicated by him from October, 1867, to 
October, 1869, seven articles on the "Natural Theology of the 
Social Sciences." In the JVbrtA American Review for April, 
1857, appeared "Hickok's Empirical Psychology;" in the Ifeir 
Englander, October, 1862, "The Laws of Political Economy 
in their moral Relations;" and, in April of that year, in the 
same periodical, a "Review of Buckle's History of Civiliza- 
tion." To the Presbyterian Review, Prof. Bascom contributed, 
in 1866, "The Relations of Intuitions to Thought and The- 
ology;" in 1869, "Consciousness: What is It?" in 1870, "In- 
spiration and the Historic Element in the Scriptures;" in July, 
1871, "Darwin's Theory;" in July, 1872, "Evolution." In 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 165 

December, 1869, in Putnam's Magazine, appeared a paper 
from his pen entitled "The Foci of the Social Ellipse." Five of 
his agricultural addresses have been published, and ten of his 
sermons; of the latter, six are baccalaureate. 

With writers less profound than Dr. Bascom, the tendency 
is, usually, to attempt enriching thoughts with wealth of words; 
but President Bascom is rich both in thoughts and words. 
It sometimes happens that, in marshalling his ideas, he becomes 
so intent upon reaching the objective point, that he leaves 
his words to "fight their way through" as best they can; 
but this is not of frequent occurrence: usually, his style is 
very attractive; and, in his "Philosphy of English Literature," 
it shows, perhaps, to better advantage than in any of his 
other works. There is, in his manner of expression, an ob- 
servable independence; and the same peculiarity is noticeable 
in his thoughts; but it iS an independence a freedom aris- 
ing not from an over-estimate of his own abilities, from osten- 
tation or vanity, but simply from originality. There is a 
directness in what he says indicative of the habit of close rea- 
soning. Take this example from his baccalaureate sermon of 
June 14, 1874, upon "The Freedom of Faith:" 

"Belief is the supreme power of the soul; unbelief is its su- 
preme weakness. No faculty gives us the range of the spirit- 
ual universe but this, the faculty of faith. If we walk by 
sight only, we can never pass those bounds which divide the 
visible and the invisible, the present and the future, the mor- 
tal and the immortal. Our field is circumscribed with limits 
like those which hem in the brute. Sensations are open to us, 
and the sagacity that springs from them; but no divine spirit of 
insight and hope descends upon us, making us the children of 
God. It is given only to those who can believe, who can lay 
hold of the visible as a sufficient symbol and proof of the invis- 
ible, who can receive the incarnate word, to them offered, as 
the express image of truth, to become the sons of God. The 
soul is spirtually powerless that cannot believe, that cannot 
beat the air with the wings of faith, to whom the hidden things 
of the kingdom are remote, impalpable, unattainable." 



166 SKETCHES OF THE 

The proudest monument of the greatness of Wisconsin is its 
common schools. This, Dr. Bascom seems fully to realize. At 
the head of an institution itself the apex of the school-system 
of the state his words have no uncertain sound. He says: 
"The communism of our time is not all an error. It means 
something. It means that wealth and poverty must stand on 
more equal terms than hitherto, that the resources of the nation 
are for the nation, and that no stable community can be built 
upon merely commercial law. The true communisn is that of 
intelligence, of opportunities. If we reject this, we shall be 
worried and wasted by its devilish counterpart, the restless 
night-stalking ghost of murdered sympathy. It is strange, 
very strange, that our churches take no more interest in public 
instruction. Some of them attack the common schools, some 
of them are indifferent to them, and none seem to regard them 
as a supreme point at which life is to be poured into the com- 
munity." And thus he sums up the subject: "A school 
system that gathers up the w"ealth and the good will, the 
constructive thought and executive wisdom of a people, 
will be great in itself, great in the condition it carries with it, 
and magnificently great in its command of the future."* 

President Bascom is a thoroughly successful instructor. 
Indeed, his hold upon the students is regarded as something 
quite remarkable. He is lucid, concise, and fascinating; and 
his resources seem inexhaustible. His chosen field and the 
one, perhaps, which he has cultivated the most thoroughly, is 
that of mental and moral philosophy. Upon these subjects 
he has few equals. As a public speaker and pulpit orator, he 
is impressive and always commands attention and respect. His 
duties as executive officer of the University he performs with 
conscientiousness and promptness; and no interest of the 
institution, however trivial it may seem, is ever allowed to suf- 
fer from want of his personal attention. " Under his able 
management and watchful care, the University has made rapid 

*From "The Common School,'' a baccalaureate sermon delivered to 
the graduating class of the University of Wisconsin, June 10, 1878. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 167 

progress. His broad and enlightened views on education have 
been fruitful of a vast amount of good, not only to the insti- 
tution over which he presides, but also to the state and to the 
country." He is a close student a scholar, in the strict sense 
of the word. "With him, however, "books are but helps." He 
is not borne along wholly in the vehicle of other men's 
thoughts, but is more frequently seen riding triumphantly in 
the chariot of his own. 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER XVII. 

THE TWENTIETH UNIVERSITY TEAR RESIGNATION OF PRESI- 
DENT CHADHOURNE COMMENCEMENT OF LADIES' HALL 

ERECTION OF A GYMNASIUM PROSPERITY OF THE UNIVER- 
SITY INSTRUCTIONAL FORCE FOR THE NINETEENTH AND 

TWENTIETH UNIVERSITY YEARS PROF. R. 15. ANDERSON. 

The twentieth year of the University began the twenty-fifth 
of August, 1809, and ended the twenty-second of June, 1870, 
with the graduation, from the college of arts, of Willis F. Cobb, 
Charles H. Hall, Henry A. Harriman, Stephen Leahy, Daniel 
E. Maloney, L. J. Rusk, L. B. Sale, and R. H. Schmidt, each of 
whom received the degree of bachelor of philosophy. There 
was also graduated, from the female college, with the same de- 
gree, Ellen L. Chynoweth. The graduates from the college of 
letters, each with the degree of bachelor of arts, were R. M. 
Bashford, Jacob Bickler, Gottlieb Engel, G. W. Field, S. S. 
Gregory, William E. Huntington, Burr W. Jones, A. C. 
Parkinson, A. M. Rice, and C. A. Smith. From the law depart- 
ment, as bachelors of law, there were graduated Charles H. 
Gardner, A. E. Gepson, W. H. Hurley, J. H. Humphrey, Pat- 
rick O'Meara, A. H. Southworth, George Sylvester, Isaac N. 
Tichnor, and S. H. Vaughan. The oration was delivered before 
the alumni association by Samuel Fallows of the class of 1859, 
and the poem was read by I). B. Frankenburger of the class of 
1869. 

It was at the close of this university year that President 
Chadbourne felt called upon, by the precarious state of his 
health, and because of his private interests, to sever his con- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 169 

nection with the institution. His ability, energy, and inces- 
sant labors, had contributed very largely to advance the inter- 
ests of the University and to increase its efficiency. In all the 
departments of the institution, his zeal was alike manifested. 
He worked, together with his corps of professors and instruct- 
tors, conscientiously, ably, and successfully; and the result was 
most satisfactory to all friends of the institution. There was 
a deep regret expressed at his leaving. Said the regents, in 
their report for 1870: "The board has heretofore often pub- 
licly expressed its sense of the high value of President Chad- 
bourne's services; and the members take pleasure in saying 
that the iruits of his labors have identified him with the Uni- 
versity, and that he will long be held in grateful remem- 
brance." 

One of the pressing needs of the University, after the estab- 
lishment of the female college, was a building to be occupied 
by the ladies in attendance. The president of the board of 
regents, in his report for 1869, said: "We need, for the 
young men, every particle of the room occupied by the young 
ladies [in the university hall]; and, to this end, we are in want 
of a building to be used as a female college." Promptly, 
the legislature acted upon the suggestion. By an act approved 
March 12, 1870, there was appropriated, for the purpose of 
enabling the regents to build an additional edifice upon the 
university grounds, the sum of fifty thousand dollars. So, 
while the illiberal policy on the part of Wisconsin, in times 
past, toward her sons, in failing to come to the aid of the 
University in her hour of trouble, had been a reproach to 
the state, now she came boldly to the front in advance of 
any of her sister states in making provisions for the liberal 
education of her daughters. Plans and specifications for the 
new building were soon prepared, and the contract for its 
erection was awarded to John Fellenz, the structure to be com- 
pleted by the first of October, 1871. Another important law 
of 1870, approved on the fifteenth of March, was one provid- 
ing for the admission to the bar of graduates of the law 



170 SKETCHES OF THE 

department, by which it was provided that all such graduates 
should be entitled to admission to the bar of all the courts of 
Wisconsin, upon presentation to the judge or judges thereof 
certificates of such graduation, and the payment of one dollar. 
During the year 1870, a frame building for drill and gym- 
nastic exercises was completed on the university grounds, at 
a cost of about four thousand dollars. It is a plain, substan- 
tial structure, admirably adapted to the uses for which it was 
designed. The main building is one hundred feet long by fifty 
in width. To this is attached a wing, thirty-four feet by twen- 
ty feet, containing an armory and an cffice for the professor 
of military tactics. 

The influence of the University was now widely felt in the 
state, as evidenced by the. interest awakened not only among 
educational men, but among prominent citizens generally. "Un- 
measured good," wrote the president of the board of regents, 
in his report for 1870, "comes to all classes connected with the 
University from feeling that the people of the state, through their 
chosen representatives, manifest an interest and state pride in 
the prosperity of their chief educational school. It cheers the 
teachers, whose highest reward is, to see the fruitage of their 
labors in the sending out of accomplished young men and 
women to labor in yet broader fields; and it is an effectual 
stimulus to the students to strain every nerve, and make the 
most of the advantages within their reach." " It is not too 
much to say, " continued the writer, " that the influence of 
the University is already felt throughout the commonwealth, 
in the reaching for a higher and better education; and that 
even more has been accomplished in this direction than 
could have been hoped for by those who know the difficulties 
contended with, and the limited means given with which to 
work." 

The faculty and instructors for the nineteenth university 
year were Paul A. Chadbourne, president and professor of 
mental and moral philosophy; John W. Sterling, vice-presi- 
dent and professor of natural philosophy and astronomy; John 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 171 

B. Parkinson, professor of mathematics; Stephen H. Carpenter, 
professor of rhetoric and English literature; William F. Allen, 
professor of ancient languages and history; John B. Feuling, 
professor of modern languages and comparative philology; 
Colonel "W. R. Pease, professor of military engineering and 
tactics; W. W. Daniells, professor of agriculture and analyti- 
cal chemistry; John E. Davies, professor of natural history 
and chemistry; Addison E. Verrill, professor of comparative 
anatomy and entomology; Orsamus Cole, Byron H. Paine, J. 
H. Carpenter, and William F. Vilas, professors of law, with 
H. S. Orton as dean of law faculty; Amos H. Thompson, 
tutor; Isaac S. Leavitt and A. H. South worth, instructors in 
the preparatory department; Elizabeth Earle, preceptress; 
Clarissa L. Ware, associate preceptress; Frances Brown, 
teacher of music; and Louisa Brewster, teacher of drawing 
and painting. The faculty and instructors, for the twentieth 
university year, were the same as the previous year, except 
that R. D. Irving filled the chair of geology, mining and metal- 
lurgy, which had been created; Walter S. Franklin occupied 
the chair of military science and engineering, made vacant by 
the resignation of Colonel Pease; R. B. Anderson was made 
instructor in languages, and D. B. Frankenburger, instructor, 
simply. Thompson as tutor and Leavitt and South worth as in- 
structors in the preparatory department were no longer con- 
nected with the institution. Clarissa L. Ware took the place 
of Elizabeth Earle as preceptress; while Clara D. Bewick and 
Lizzie S. Spencer were employed as assistants. To S. H. 
Carpenter's professorship was added logic. 

In June, 1875, Rasmus B. Anderson, A. M., was elected, by 
the regents, professor of Scandinavian languages in the Uni- 
versity. He was born the twelfth of January, 184G, in Albion, 
Dane county, Wisconsin, of Norwegian parents, his father 
having been, in 1835, the leader of the first large company of emi- 
grants that came from Norway to the United States, arriving 
in Wisconsin in September, 1841. The son received such 
common school instruction as the pioneer settlement afforded. 



72 SKETCHES OF THE 

At the age of fourteen, he left home, leading a somewhat un- 
settled life for the next two years. He then entered an Iowa 
college, where he studied over three years, at the expiration of 
which time he returned to Wisconsin and, in June, I860, was 
elected professor of Greek and modern languages, in Albion 
academy, in his native county. This position he held for near- 
ly three years, drawing into the institution a large number of 
Scandinavian pupils. 

Prof. Anderson then entered as student the post-graduate 
course in the University of Wisconsin, where he remained 
during the spring term of 1869. In the summer thereafter, 
he was appointed instructor in languages in that institution, 
continuing in the position until the summer of 1875, when, as 
before stated, he was called to the chair of Scandinavian lan- 
guages, the first native-born citizen of Wisconsin to be hon- 
ored with a full professorship in the institution. This office he 
continues to fill, with credit and ability. He was appointed 
librarian of the University in 1877, which position he still 
holds. He has established, in the institution, a Scandinavian 
Mimer's library, the best one of the kind in the United States. 
It contains over one thousand volumes. In the founding of 
this library, he received much assistance from Ole Bull, the 
world-renowned violinist, who, on the seventeenth of May, 
1872, gave a concert in Madison, Wisconsin, in aid of the 
enterprise. 

Prof. Anderson is, for his age, one of the most prolific 
writers of the country. As a contributor to the periodical 
press and as an author of books for general reading, no other 
citizen of Wisconsin has gained so extended a reputation. He 
early began to feel an especial interest in Norse literature, 
collecting works upon subjects connected therewith, the result 
being the accumulation, at this time, of a large and unique 
private Scandinavian library. His first contributions to the 
press were made in 1865, at the age of nineteen. Since then, 
he has contributed extensively to newspapers and magazines 
published in the Norwegian language, in the United States 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 173 



arid Norway. These articles are, to some extent, upon his- 
tory and belles-letters, but the larger portion are polemic. 
Among these contributions are to be found "Iluner;" "Folke- 
frihedens Vugge stod i Norge;" "C. C. Rafn, Biografisk 
Skizze;" "Oplysningens Nytte i timelig Henseende;" and 
numerous others of recognized ability. The burden of his 
controversial articles has been an ardent defense of American 
institutions, particularly of the common school. The gist of 
his sentiments with reference to this cherished institution of our 
country is to be found in this terse, and rather startling motto 
adopted by him: "Whosoever, directly or indirectly, opposes 
the American common school is an enemy of education, lib- 
erty, and progress. Opposition to the common school is trea- 
son to our country" 

In the English language, Prof. Anderson has supplied pa- 
pers to be found in the Atlantic Monthly, The Nation, The 
Christian at, Work, Inland Monthly, Frank Leslie's Sunday 
Magazine, Itobinsori's Epitome of Literature, The Library 
Table, and others; to the English press, articles to be found in 
various periodicals, especially in The London Academy. His 
contributions to the daily papers, east and west, in the 
United States, have been numerous. His connection with 
"Osszehasonlito Irodalomtortenelmi Lapok"* has been inter- 
esting and quite extensive. This polyglot journal is published 
by the professors of the Royal university of Hungary. In it, 
he has published a number of articles both in poetry and in 
prose. It is a periodical circulating among scholars in every 
quarter of the globe. 

Prof. Anderson began his successful and enviable career as 

*" Journal of Comparative Literature;'' "[Latin] ActaComparationis 
Literarvm Vniversarvm ;'' "[German] Zeitschrift fur Vergleichende Lit- 
teratur:" "[Portuguese] Folhas de Litteratura Comparativa ;'' "[Ital- 
ian] Giornaledi Litteratura G'omparata ;" "[Spanish] Periodicode Liter- 
atura Comparada;" "[French] Journal de Litterature Comparee;" 
"[Swedish] Tidskrift for Jemforaude Literatur;" "[Dutch] Tijdschrift 
voor Vergelijkendo Letterkunde ;" "[Icelandic] Timarit fyrir Bokmenta 
Samaiiburdh."' 



174: SKETCHES OF THE 

an author of books, by giving to the world, in 1872, "Julegave" 
a work in Norwegian. It is a collection of Norse folk-lore 
stories and has reached its third edition. Of the work, Tlie 
Nation of February 20, 1879, says: "The 'Julegave,' or 
'Christmas-gift,' of fairy tales and stories to the children of the 
Norwegian settlers on our continent, consists of selections 
chiefly from the charming collections of Asbjornsen and Moe, 
arid owes its existence to a desire to provide the little ones 
with entertaining reading in the language of their fathers. 
Among the tales, we recognize such common property of the 
Aryan race as 'Little Red' Ridinghood,' 'Faithful John,' and 
'The Master Thief;' while others bear a more distinctively 
Norwegian stamp. We can .heartily recommend them to 
both young and old." 

In 1874, Prof. Anderson published another Norwegian book, 
his second effort for public favor. The work was entitled 
"Den Norske Maalsag;" it being an account of the move- 
ment to restore a national language in Norway. Says The 
Nation: "The written language of Norway, as is well known, 
differs widely from the spoken dialect, and 'Den Norske Maal- 
sag' gives an interesting account of the efforts that, since the 
separation from Denmark in 1814, have been made by an ever- 
growing number to supplant the Danish of the press and liter- 
ature by the 'Almuemaal.' To the book is appended a story 
in Norwegian by Kristofer Jansen, one of the foremost cham- 
pions of the movement." The London Academy, while op- 
posing the project thus illustrated and supported by Prof. An- 
derson, admitted that his book said everything that could be 
said in favor of the movement. That journal added: "Mr. 
Anderson supplements his clever little book with a specimen 
of the new language." 

Prof. Anderson now entered upon a larger field of literature, 
which he has since cultivated with even more success than the 
other. His first book in the English language Avas "Am- 
erica not Discovered by Columbus;" third edition, in 1877. 
This work has been received with marked attention at home 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 175 

arid abroad. It has been reviewed in many languages; and, 
with one notable exception, these notices have all been com- 
mendatory. This history is an attempt to place (what the au- 
thor believes to be) the facts of the Norse discovery of Ameri- 
ca in the tenth century, within the reach of all; and to show, by 
a chain of circumstantial evidence that Columbus, before sail- 
ing upon his famous voyage in 1492, was in possession of 
knowledge of the Norse discovery. Of- the work, the Lon- 
don N~otes and Queries says: "It is a valuable addition to 
Amrican history. * The book is full of surprising 

statements, and will be read with something like wonderment." 
The book has been twice translated into the Norwegian lan- 
guage; once, into modern Norwegian, and again into the 
tongue advocated by the author's "Maalsag." 

The idea of erecting a monument to Leif Erikson, claimed 
to be the discoverer of America, was first suggested by Prof. 
Anderson, who has interested himself greatly in the undertak- 
ing, securing the cooperation of Ole Bull and John A. Johnson. 
From the attention called to the supposed discovery by the 
publication of "America not Discovered by Columbus," also 
from Ole Bull's efforts and influence, and from the contribu- 
tions of others, a sum sufficient has been raised, the monu- 
ment to be the work of J. Q. Ward, the sculptor. It is to 
adorn the post-office square, in Boston. 

In 1875, Prof. Anderson published his " Norse Mythology." 
This is his largest work and the one upon which rests, to a 
great extent, his excellent literary reputation. It is an 
exhaustive and systematic presentation of the Odinic religion 
of the old Teutons, based on the Icelandic Eddas and Sagas. 
Few books have been more extensively or more generously 
noticed by the press of America. In Europe, its 
reception has been equally cordial; English, French, 
German, and Scandinavian journals gave it, and are still 
giving it, elaborate and most favorable notices. Says the 
Christian Era: "It is full of matter at once entertaining and 
instructive. What Hans Christian Andersen was to the 



176 SKETCHES OF THE 

children, Professor Anderson is to the 'children of larger 
growth.' He is a guide into the most famous fable-land of the 
globe, and a translator of the most marvelous traditions among 
men." This, from the Hartford Post: " Professor Anderson's 
'Norse Mythology' is without a peer in the English language. 
There is none so thorough and complete, so appreciative and 
enthusiastic, so really fresh and entrancing. In some respects,, 
it is as bright and vivid as a tale by Dickens, and enchants one 
by the beauty and simplicity of its strange conceptions. At 
the same time, it exhibits all the earnestness and purity of 
ancient northern thought and purpose." The New York 
Tribune has words equally commendatory: "Prof. Anderson ' 
has produced a monograph which may be regarded as exhaust- 
ive in all its relations. His work gives evidence of wide re- 
search." Says Scribner^s Monthly: " Prof. Anderson's work 
is incomparably superior to the already existing books of this 
order." Prof. Max Muller writes thus to the author, of his 
work: "I like it decidedly; and, whenever I approach the 
dark runes of the Edda, I shall gladly avail myself of your 
help and guidance." " We say in all sincerity," is the lan- 
guage of the Boston Globe, " that no American book of recent 
years does equal credit to American scholarship, or is deserv- 
ing of more pronounced success." And thus the Boston Daily 
Advertiser: "The volume is rich in poems from the Eddas; 
and the myths are as wonderful, as fantastic, as exciting, as any 
of the Greek fables, and have the additional elements of ice 
and frost to enhance their wildness and mystery." The book, 
some time ago, reached a third edition, and a fourth will soon 
be issued. 

Prof. Anderson's " Viking Tales of the North " was issued 
from the press, in 1877. It is a literary study of Tegner's 
celebrated Fridthjof 's Saga, giving, in an English translation, 
the Saga material, out of which Tegner fashioned his poem; 
giving, furthermore, an introduction on Saga literature; also, 
a biography of Tegner; and, by way of an appendix, Prof. 
Stephen's English translation of the poem: the whole care- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 177 

fully annotated by Prof. Anderson. Says the Boston Com- 
monwealth: " This work will vie in interest to scholars with 
the Vedas of the East." And thus, The Nation: "Prof. 
Anderson's book is a very valuable and important one. The 
'Saga of Thorstein, Viking's Son,' * * * teems with 
magnificently dramatic situations, the impressiveness of \\hich 
is rather increased by the calm directness and dignity with 
which they are related. And these features are as character- 
istic of the English version as of the Icelandic originals. The 
translator shows an intimate acquaintance with all the intrica- 
cies of that cruelly inflected language, and an enthusiastic ap- 
preciation of its epigrammatic pith and vigor. * * * Teg- 
iier's celebrated poem, ' Fridthjof s Saga,' is sufficiently novel 
in its theme and abounding in melody and rhythm to yield a 
large measure of enjoyment." Thus, The Boston Traveller: 
" It is impossible to describe these writings; but the reader will 
find himself immeasurably repaid by their perusal." Says The 
Churchman: " This work, as a whole, will please and instruct 
all classes of readers, and especially those who wish to search 
out the antiquities of Scandinavian literature. But every one 
will be struck with the majesty and force of that old poetry of 
the north." 

Prof. Anderson is now at work, with Ole Bull, upon a book 
to be entitled " Violins and Violin-Makers." He has in hand, 
also, a translation, from Icelandic, of the Elder Edda and the 
Younger Edda, in all three volumes; "A Guide into Teuton- 
dom," one volume; and "Folk-lore Stories, from the Xorse," 
one volume. He has, likewise, other literary enterprises un- 
der way, prominent among which are an English version of 
the Finnish national epic, "Kalevala," and an extensive and 
thorough study of the Magyar poet, Petofi, whom he hopes 
soon to introduce to the English-speaking public. 

The chief of Prof. Anderson's prose translations is " Char- 
coal Burners," from the Swedish. This has already been no- 
ticed as a work annotated and published, in the English lan- 
guage, by Prof. Nicodemus. From the Norwegian, Prof. An- 



178 SKETCHES OF THE 

derson has translated for the Smithsonian institution, among 
other articles, an account of the Norwegian North Sea ex- 
ploration, by Prof. George O. Sars. He has translated a large 
number of poems from Norwegian, Swedish, and Icelandic; 
some have been printed in musical publications; one, in Long- 
fellow's "Poems of Places;" several, in the Hungarian Jour- 
nal of Comparative Literature; others, in various periodicals 
at home and abroad. His translation used by Longfellow is 
from the Norwegian poet, Andreas Munch, and is entitled 

A BRIDAL PARTY ON THE IIARDANGEK FJOKD. 

There quivers a glittering summer air 

Warm o'er Harclanger Fjord's fountains, 
Where high 'gainst the heavens, so blue and bare, 

Are towering the mighty mountains. 
The glacier shines bright, the hillside is green, 

The people are clad in their Sunday clothes- clean; 
For look! o'er the blue billows rowing, 

The wedding-folks home are going. 

A beautitul princess from times ot old, 

With crown and with scarlet and crimson, 
Sits high on the boat-stern so fair to behold, 

Than fjord and the daylight more winsome. 
The hat of the bridegroom, how happy it flies! 

For home he is bringing his loveliest prize ; 
He sees in her eyes reflected 

The hopes of his life perfected. 

Hardanger's weird instruments now pour forth strange 
tunes; there is feasting and revelry; the bells in the church- 
tower ring; at that favorable moment, an artist catches 

"This picture with beauty beaming," 

which is afterward shown to the world, that all may see the 
glories of Hardangcr Fjord and learn the wonderful stories of 
the northland.* 

Prof. Anderson has published a number of pamphlets in 
English and Norwegian, upon various subjects. One of these, 
entitled, "The Scandinavian Languages; Their Historical, 
*Soe Longfellow's "Poems of Places," vol. III., pp. 217, 218. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 179 

Linguistic, Literary, and Scientific Value," is worthy of espec- 
ial mention. Besides his numerous other literary labors, he 
has charge, as assistant editor, of the department of pre-Co- 
lumbian history., in The American Antiquarian. He has un- 
der his supervision, also, the Scandinavian department of 
McClintock and Strong's Cyclopedia of Biblical Literature, 
and of Kiddle and Schem's Cyclopedia of Education, and has 
contributed articles to Johnson's Cyclopedia. His books 
have been extensively quoted by writers on American history, 
on northern literature, and on mythology. He reads, besides the 
English, Norwegian, Swedish, and Icelandic, the Anglo-Saxon, 
Modern, Middle, and Old High German; also, French, Latin, 
and Greek. As a lecturer, he has gained considerable reputa- 
tion. He spoke in the house of the poet Longfellow, in 1874, 
to a select audience of literary celebrities, on the subject of 
Norse mythology. In 1878, he delivered a course of four lec- 
tures upon Norse history and literature at the Peabody insti- 
tute in Baltimore. These lectures were attended by large 
numbers and attracted general attention. Because of his 
translations, works, and lectures, Prof. Anderson has been fre- 
quently (and with justice) called the father of Norse literature 
in America. He has twice visited Europe, once in 1872 and 
again in 1873, both times in company with Ole Bull. These 
trips were made chiefly for the purpose. of extending his ac- 
quaintance with men and things in northern Europe. In 1875, 
he was made an honorary member of the Icelandic Literary So- 
ciety. He was appointed delegate to the international con- 
gress of Americanists that assembled at Luxemburg in Sep- 
tember, 1877, but professional duties prevented his attendance. 
He was also appointed at that congress a member to the ses- 
sion to be held at Brussels in September, 1879. 

Several short biographies of the Professor have been pub- 
lished: one, in the Chicago Times; one, in the Cincinnati 
Enquirer; another, in the Nordiske Blade; a fourth, in 
Hejmdal, Chicago; a fifth, in Daybladet, Christiania, Nor- 
way; a sixth, in Robinson^s Epitome of Literature; Philadel- 
phia; a seventh, by the Petofi society, in Hungary; an eighth, 



180 SKETCHES OF THE 

in the "History of Madison, Wisconsin:" and a ninth, in 
Illustreret Familieblad, Chicago, in Jannary, 1879. He has 
been the recipient of many flattering testimonials from literary 
and scientific men at home and abroad. The following poeti- 
cal tribute, in the Norwegian language, is from Munch, the 
poet-laureate of Norway. A free translation into English is 
subjoined: 

NORGE I AMEUIKA. 

(Til Professor Rasmus B. Anderson.) 

Til fjerne Vesten fra (lit Skjod uddrage, 
Mit Faedreland, saa mange gjaeve Souner. 
Din haarde Jord kun sparsomt dem belonner 
For tunge Arbeid' i de lange Dage. - 

De haabe i Amerika at tage 
En gylden Host, et Liv, som ikke stonuer ; 
Maaske der Himlen horer deres Bonner, 
Men ofte laenges de dog vist tilbage. 

Pris vaere derfor Dem, som vil dem bringe 
Et Bud fra Hjemmet i de kjendte Toner, 
Der melleni Norges Fjelcle hjemligtkliuge; 
Som baere vil i hine fjerne Zoner 
Vort skjonne Sprog paa Digterkunstens Vinge 
Og haevde, Arvcn som alt Savn forsoner. 

NORWAY IN AMERICA. 

(To Professor Rasmus B. Anderson.) 

To western fields from thy lap are going. 

My fatherland, how many lads and lasses ! 
Thy stony soil but poorly pays their sowing 

And dreary toil, among those mountain masses. 

They hope in western lands to gather 

A golden crop, a life that's free from worry. 

It may be Heaven hears their prayers rather 
There ; but their hearts still long to be in Norway. 

To you be therefore praise, since you are bringing 
A word to them in tones so home-like sounding, 

As though 'mong Norway's mountains they were ringing. 
Ancestral wisdom to our sons expounding, 

Our language's praise with poet's voice you're singing, 
In far-off zones, across the billows bounding. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 181 

The number of Scandinavian students in the University of 
Wisconsin has been large and constantly increasing since Prof. 
Anderson became connected with it. There are more of 
that nationality in attendance at this institution than in all 
other American colleges combined, except in such as are strict- 
ly Scandinavian. The bequest by John A. Johnson, hereafter 
mentioned, and the Mimer's library, already referred to, have 
been largely instrumental in swelling the numbers. As a 
teacher of Scandinavian languages, Prof. An'derson is pains- 
taking, thorough, and very enthusiastic. He is popular with 
the students under his instruction, and has a happy faculty of 
filling their minds with the zeal so characteristic of himself as 
an educator and writer. 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE UNIVERSITY PRESS ESTABLISHED TWENTY-FIRST UNIVER- 

SITY YEAR LADIES' HALL COMPLETED j. 11. TAVOMBLY ELECT - 

E'D PRESIDENT TAVENTY-SECOND UNIA'ERSITY YEAR HON- 
ORARY DEGREES CONFERRED BY THE UNIVERSITY AX ANNU- 
AL APPROPRIATION SECURED APPOINTMENT OF A BOARD OF 

VISITORS FREE TUITION GRANTED TO GRADUATES OF GRADED 

SCHOOLS TWENTY-THIRD UNIVERSITY YEAR COEDUCATION 

OF THE SEXES ESTABLISHED TWENTY-FOURTH UNIVERSITY 

YEAR RESIGNATION OF J. H. TAVOMBLY ELECTION OF JOHN 

BASCOM AS PRESIDENT BROAD CHARACTER OF THE UNIVER- 
SITY UNIVERSITY' AND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE LANDS 

DAA'ID B. FRANKENBURGER, PH. B. 

In June, 1870, was issued the first number of The Univer- 
sity Press, G. W. Raymer arid James W. Bashford, editors 
and publishers. It Avas started as a monthly periodical. Jn 
their salutatory, the editors say: "Seeing the rapid growth of 
the University for the past few years, in its law department, 
in its military department, in it agricultural department, in its 
chemical department, and in the other departments, all con- 
ducted by the best men that can be procured in the country, 
we have felt that the institution stood in need of no one thing 
more than a Avell-edited university journal, devoted to its in- 
terests; one that would make knoAvii its wants, advocate its 
rights, redress its Avrongs; one that Avould be a firm supporter 
of the institution in all its interests, Avith its columns always 
open to scientific, literary, and general ne\vs articles, written 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 183 

by the students, the professors, and the friends of the Uni- 
versity." 

The twenty-first university year began, under the manage- 
ment of Vice-President J. W. Sterling, on the twenty-fourth of 
August, 1870, and en;led June 21, 1871, with the graduation, 
from the college of arts, of Carolyn E. Adams, T. L. Cole, D. 
W. Grady, Sarah J. Hardenburg, Robert Orr, Adele M. Over- 
ton, M. W. Pepper, G. W. Raymer, Henry Reid, Ada M. Rob- 
son, John Stewart, Q. O. Sutherland, O. J. Taylor, Volney 
Underhill, Albert Watkins, and John \V. Whelan; from the 
college of letters, of John W. Bashford, H. S. Bassett, L. W. 
Colby, John A. Gaynor, John F. Glover, and C. N. Gregory; 
and, from the law department, of R. M. Bashford, E. B. M. 
Browne, Robert Catlin, Henry Coe, D. B. Frankenburger, C. 
E. Freeman, S. S. Gregory, T. C. Hardy, H. H. Helms, Justin 
Jacobs, Jr., B. W. Jones, D. L. Jones, John T. Jones, F. J. 
Knight, Peter McGovern, Nils Michelet, O. H. Orton, A. C. 
Parkinson, C. A. Smith, and C. H. Van Wermer. T. B. Chy- 
noweth, of the class of 1868, had been appointed to deliver the 
oration before the alumni association, but he courteously and 
generously gave way to other exercises attending the com- 
mencement. The annual poem was read by D. B. Frank- 
enburger. 

The appropriation, by the legislature of Wisconsin, of fifty 
thousand dollars, for the erection of a female college building, 
was the first instance of an appropriation by the state for any 
university edifice. The building is a stone structure, fifty 
by seventy-five feet, with a wing forty by eighty- seven feet, 
all three stories high beside the basement. It is provided 
with porticos and piazzas, with halls and recitation rooms, be- 
side many conveniences for cooking and laundry work. The 
entire cost of the structure was less than forty-seven thousand 
dollars. The building has a fine architectural effect, and adds 
much to the general appearance of the university grounds. 
The paramount idea of the regents, in the erection of this edi- 
fice was, that young ladies, attending the University, might, if 



184 SKETCHES OF THE 

they chose, pursue their studies entirely within the limits of a 
female college of the highest character; that is, they were 
given the option of taking the studies of the female college, 
under lady teachers, or with the regular university classes, 
their recitations and other exercises being separate. It will 
thus be seen that the regents were rapidly approaching the 
time when every trace of distinction in instruction and oppor- 
tunities between the sexes \>as to be removed, and coeduca- 
tion to become a reality. 

It was during the twenty-first university year that the mod- 
ern classical course was arranged in the University, mainly 
with a view to che wants of young ladies, who, it was supposed, 
would prefer not to take the full scientific course with the high- 
er mathematics, or the full (ancient) classical course; but the 
supposition has since proved, to a great extent, erroneous. 
During this administrative year of Vice-President Sterling, the 
institution went forward with increasing usefulness and with a 
greater number of students than ever before. In June, 1871, 
the regents secured the services of J. H. Twombly, as presi- 
dent, "his high character, and long experience in collegiate 
and educational management, with his energy and practical 
knowledge," led "the board to congratulate themselves and 
the University upon the good fortune which enabled them to 
'place him at the head of the institution." W. J. L. Nicodemus 
was, during this university year, as previously mentioned, elect- 
ed to the professorship of military science and engineering. It 
was then that every department in the institution was put in 
complete working order. 

The twenty-second university year began on the twenty- 
third of August, 1871, and ended June 19, 1872, with the grad- 
uation, from the college of arts, of Edward D. Adler, Alethe 
C. Arnold, A. E. Bourne, T. E. Bowman, F. G. Brown, R. H. 
Brown, Maria E. Byrne, H. M. Chittenden, Julia L. Cook, 
Joseph Cover, H. W. Deming, Philip Eden, Jr., "W. A. Frank- 
lin, Gertrude M. Hardenburg, H. W. Hoyt, J. C. Keefe, L. R. 
Larson, C. E. Laverty, C. S. Montgomery, Jennie Muzzy, D. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN- 185 

T. Newton, W. E. Odell, J. K. Parish, E, T. Sweet, and H. M. 
Wells; from the college of letters, of E. C. Arnold, G. D. 
Cline, Sidney Houghton, E. H. Craig, L. M. Fisher, B. W. 
James, G. F. Merrill, J. B. Slattery, G. G. Sutherland, and E. 
P. Vilas; and from the law department, ot W. S. Arnold, H. 
P. Barlow, B. E. Brown, Daniel Buchanan, E. C. Burke, L. 
W. Colby, R. M. Crane, D. H. Flinn, C. N. Gregory, G. P. 
Harrington, W. T. Kelsey, J. M. Kennedy, John Likens, D. 
E. Maloney, H. L. Palmer, John Patterson, M. W. Pepper, J. 
S. Phillips, F. C. Rennie, C. W, Roby, L. B. Sale, M. C. Sal- 
mon, I. B. Smith, R. C. Spooner, Herbert Sylvester, R. F. Tag- 
gart, O. J. Taylor, Albert Watkins, and H. S. Wicks. In ac- 
cordance with a time-honored custom of other universities 
and colleges, the university class of 1872, inaugurated, on the 
fifteenth of June, a "class-day." 

At the University commencement of 1856, the honorary de- 
gree of doctor of medicine was conferred by the regents of 
the University upon Alfred L. Castleman: the honorary degree 
of master of arts, upon H. K. Smith, 1867; J. C. Spooner, 
1869; J. W. Borchsenius, 1870, and upon S. S. Rockwood, 
1871: and the honorary degree of doctor of laws, upon R. Z. 
Mason, 1866; H. S. Orton, L. S. Dixon, Orsamus Cole, and 
Byron Paine, in 1869; and, at the end of the twenty-second 
university year (1872), upon W. P. Lyon and L. C. Draper. 

The twenty-second university year (1871-1872), was a pros- 
perous one for the institution. " Steadily and surely," said 
the president of the board of regents, " the University is grow- 
ing in popular favor, each year adding to its numbers and 
influence. Its usefulness is .widening; its reputation for 
thorough instruction increasing, and the hopes of its patrons 
and friends, that it may become an institution of the highest 
character for scholarship and discipline, worthy of the fullest 
confidence of the people, are fast being realized." Under the 
management of President Twombly, who also filled the chair 
of mental and moral philosophy, "the University held steadily 
on in its course of prosperity." During the university year, 



186 SKETCHES OF THE 

H. S. Ortou was compelled to resign his position as dean of 
the law faculty, on account of professional engagements. P. 
L. Spooner was chosen in his place, the former continuing, 
however, as professor of law. 

By an act of the legislature of Wisconsin, approved March 
22, 1872, "to appropriate a certain sum of money to the uni- 
versity fund income, and to authorize the levy of a tax there- 
for," it was provided that there should be levied and collected 
for the year 1872, and annually thereafter, a state tax of ten 
thousand dollars; and the amount was appropriated to the 
university income, to be used as a part thereof. The pream- 
ble of the act declares, in justification of this appropriation, 
that " it has heretofore been, the settled policy of the state of 
Wisconsin, to offer for sale and dispose of its lands granted by 
congress to the state for educational purposes, at such a low- 
price per acre, as would induce immigration and location 
thereon by actual settlers;" that "such policy, although re- 
sulting in a general benefit to the whole state, has prevented 
such an iricrease,of the productive funds for which such grants 
were made, as would have been realized if the same policy had 
been pursued which is usually practiced by individuals or cor- 
porations holding large tracts of lands;" and that "the univer- 
sity fund has suffered serious loss and impairment by such 
sales of its lands, so that its income is not at present sufficient 
to supply its wants, and cannot be made so by any present 
change of policy, inasmuch as the most valuable lands have 
already been sold." Not only the appropriation mentioned in 
this act, but the sum given by the state for the erection of 
the ladies' hall, met with such cordial approbation of the peo- 
ple, that it was manifest that a hearty and generous support 
would, in the future, meet with general approval. It was the 
beginning of a wise policy, full of hope to every friend of pop- 
ular education in Wisconsin. It was, seemingly, safe for them 
to predict that the state would henceforth pursue the liberal 
course which several sister states had taken, in dealing with 
their universities, furnish the means to make such additions 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 187 

of new buildings and scientific apparatus as experience might 
demonstrate to be necessary for the proper growth of the in- 
stitution, and the convenience and comfort of the students. 

A board of visitors, consisting of six persons one from 
each congressional district in the state had been appointed 
by the regents, in accordance with one of the by-laws of the 
University. This committee, in their report made June 21, 
1872, to the regents, among other valuable declarations, make 
this one: "It is pleasant to observe that while the faculty is 
selected from the various religious denominations, including 
the Roman Catholic, the utmost harmony is preserved among 
them. Their distinctive peculiarities never appear in the dis- 
charge of their official duties." " Every father may rest as- 
sured," they add, "that our State University, belonging to the 
whole people, knows no party, no sect, makes no distinction 
on account of class, color, creed, or condition." 

The faculty and instructors for the twenty-first university 
year (1870-1871), were the same as the previous year, except 
that J. H. Twombly was president and professor of mental and 
moral philosophy, instead of Paul A. Chadbourne, resigned; 
Major Win. J. L. Nicodemus, professor of military science 
and civil engineering, in place of Col. Walter S. Franklin, re- 
signed; Wm. Penn Lyon, professor of law, in place of Byron 
Paine, deceased. A. C. Parkinson, R. M. Bashford, and Ste- 
phen Leahey, were appointed additional instructors; while 
Mrs. D. E. Corson, as preceptress, took the position of Clar- 
issa L. Ware, resigned, Josephine Magoon becoming an assist- 
ant. In addition to his duties of professor of geology, mining, 
and metallurgy, Prof. Roland D. Irving had added to his 
chair those of curator of cabinet. In the twenty-second uni- 
versity year, a few changes were made in the instructional 
force. To Prof. J. B. Parkinson's duties was added that 
of lecturer on civil polity and international law. The instruct- 
ors were Anderson, Leahey, and Thomas D. Christie. Ella 
F. Sage was employed as teacher of instrumental music. 
There was no person engaged as teacher of drawing and 
painting. 



188 SKETCHES OF THK 

Since the reorganization of the University, under the law of 
1866, the regents kept steadily in view the propriety of a 
gradual raising of the standard of admission and scholarship, 
to such an extent as eventually to do away entirely with the 
preparatory department. It was seen, however, that it must 
be done so, gradually, without too greatly diminishing the 
number of students, as to give full employment to all the pro- 
fessors and teachers. To assist in this movement, and with a 
view to a more intimate connection of the University with the 
high schools of the state, the regents, with entire unanimity, 
favored the enactment, by the legislature of Wisconsin, of a 
law, providing, conditionally, free tuition to all the graduates 
of high schools of the state. The examination for admission 
to such students would be such as would tend, it was believed, 
toward raising largely the standard of scholarship in those 
schools, and thus, in a great measure, answer the purpose of 
preparatory schools. It would also make university education 
a prize within the reach of all high school students, and would 
bring the University more completely before the people. The 
legislature readily responded to the wishes of the regents, by 
the passage of an act, approved March 16, 1872, providing that 
"all graduates of any graded school of the state who shall 
have passed an examination at such graded school satisfac- 
tory to the faculty of the University, for admission into the 
sub-freshman class and college classes of the University, shall 
be at once and at all times entitled to free tuition in all colleges 
of the University." Ten students availed themselves of this 
privilege during the twenty-second university vear (1871- 
1872), and were admitted to the university classes. 

The beginning of the twenty-third university year was on 
the fourth of September, 1872; its ending, on the nineteenth 
of June, 1873. There were graduated from the college of arts, 
W. H. Bailey, F. L. Boyce, F. W. Coon, M. S. Frawley, W. 
H. Gooding, H. W. Hewitt, W. E. Howe, C. A. Hoyt, E. W. 
Hulse, W. C. Ladd, G. S. Maxon, G. J. Patton, Duncan Reid, 
A. F. Warden, James Moroney, William Munroe, and James 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 189 

Quirk of these, the three last received each the degree of 
bachelor of civil engineering; from the college of letters, James 
W. Bashford, J. C. Hutchins, W. A. Lyman, G. H. Noyes, 
and W. I). Turvill; from the law department, G. W. Adams, 
Albert Allen, H. Blackmer, M. E. Clapp, Abel Davis, B. W. 
James, William Johnson, E. S. Knight, Stephen Leahey, C. 
E. Laverty, C. C. McNish, G. F. Merrill, F. H. Merrill, S. S. 
Miller, D. C. Millett, C. S. Montgomery, D. T. Newton, R. C. 
Orr, M. C. Ring, F. H. Tabor, Geo. C. Trucks, J. K. Weth- 
erby, David S. Wegg, H. M. Wells, and John E. Wright. 
The oration before the alumni association was delivered by 
Geo. W. Bird, of the class of 1860; and the poem was read 
by Geo. D. Cline, of the class of 1872. The honorary degree 
of doctor of philosophy was conferred upon Joseph Ficklin; 
and that of doctor of laws upon C. C. Washburn and E. G. 
Ryan. 

During this university year, the conclusion was reached 
that the course of study for the institution in all its colleges 
and departments, should be exactly the same for students of 
either sex; and thus, in the University of Wisconsin, after 
twenty-three years, it was found that young ladies were equal, 
in mental power, to young men; and coeducation became a 
fixed fact. Still, there were those of the regents who were 
not entirely satisfied that the strain on the mental faculties, 
kept up for a series of years, would prove the gentler sex 
equal to the other in endurance. But now that all serious ob- 
structions were removed from educating the sexes together, 
the experiment would, in a very few years, be thoroughly tried, 
and the result known to the people of Wisconsin. Those of 
the regents in doubt could well wait for results; and, it may 
be premised, they have not waited in vain. During the twen- 
ty-third university year, forty-eight students, graduates of 
graded schools of the state, were admitted under the act of 
1872, with free tuition; and the consequence was, as predict- 
ed, an immediate effect in diminishing the number in attend- 
ance in the preparatory department of the University. 



190 SKETCHES OF THE 

The twenty-fourth universty year began September 3, 1873, 
and ended June 18, 1874, with the graduation, from the 
college of arts, of Charles N. Akers, Florence E. Taylor, 
John Brindley, Geo. E. Brown, W. E. Brown, C. W. Bunn, 
E. R. Carr, Mary I. Carrier, Henrietta L. Crane, R. G. Dem- 
ing, Marion V. Dodge, Mary S. Dwight, L. M. Fay, Jennie 
Field, Henry Frawley, Delia E. Gilman, Thenetta Jones, 
Annie M. Martin, Mary McCoy, Kate G. McGonegal, F. R. 
Moss, Eliza Nagle, E. D. Orr, Lillian De France Park, Flor- 
ence I. Pennock, E. H. Ryan, William Street, J. J. Swift, A. 
W. Utter. M. Van Wagenen, Robert R. Williams, E. D. 
Wood, A. D. Conover, and John R. Fisher the last two with the 
degree of bachelor of civil engineering; from the college of 
letters, of A. H. Bright, B. F. Dumviddie, J. C. Fuller, Jennie 
Muzzy, O. E. Ostenson, J. H. Salisbury, and C. A. Wilkin; 
from the law department, John W. Bashford, F. L. Boyce, W. 
W. Downs, O. B. Givens, E. C. Graves, L. J. Grinde, Willis 
Hand, W. E. Howe, C. A. Hoyt, W. C. Ladd, G. W. Latta, 
E. W. Mann, G. Maxon, C. W. Monroe, G. H. Noyes, J. M. 
Pereles, H. S. Robins, Hans Spilde, G. G. Sutherland, W. D. 
Turvill, and O. T. Williams. The oration before the alumni 
association was delivered by W. H. Spencer, of the class of 
1866, and the poem was read by Miss C. E. Adams, of the 
class of 1871. 

The twenty-fourth university year was one of substantial 
progress. The resignation of J. H. Twombly as president* was 
accepted by the regents on the twenty-first day of January, 
1874, and John Bascom invited to occupy the place. The 
invitation was accepted, and Dr. Bascom entered upon the dis- 
charge of his duties as president of the University with the 
beginning of the spring term. 

From the regents report of 1874, it was evident the broad 
character of the University as to politics and religion was be- 
ing adhered to in the full spirit of the reconstruction act of 
1866. They say: "In no instance has either the religious faith 
or the partisan bias of any professor, teacher, or employe, of the 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 191 

University ever been questioned; that these matters have 
been uniformly and always ignored; and, further, that the re- 
gents believe earnestly, that whenever such questions shall en- 
ter into the appointment of regent, professor, teacher or em- 
ploye, an entering wedge will have been placed, which if driven, 
will surelv and effectually sap the foundation of usefulness for 
the University. 

"No rule should be more inviolable than this: that in the 
management of the University, no personal consideration, or 
political or sectarian faith, should ever be considered in ques- 
tions relating to appointments; for it is only by a rigid adher- 
ence to this rule that a broad career and a high character can 
be maintained for the University; and he who deviates from 
it, violates the high trust imposed on him by the people of the 
state." 

There remained unsold of university land in 1874, four 
thousand, nine hundred and seventy acres, and of agricultural 
college lands, fifty-three thousand, three hundred and seventy- 
three acres. A considerable portion of these lands lay within 
the limits of the land grants of the Wisconsin Central and St. 
Croix railroads. "These," said the regents in their report of 
1874, "are rapidly appreciating in value; but with the utter 
indifference that has characterized the action of our state leg- 
islature ever since these lands were given to the state, they 
are still in the market at minimum prices, and yearly, the best 
of those remaining are selected and purchased, and the profits 
that might accrue to the University by withholding the best 
from market for a, few years, are thrown away, and pass into 
the hands of speculators. Whenever effort has been made to 
procure from the legislature authority to withdraw any of our 
lands from market, it has met with sturdy opposition from the 
representatives of those counties in which the lands lie, on the 
ground that reservation from sale would retard settlement of 
the neighborhood. This objection would have force, if sale 
was made only to actual settlers; but it is notorious that the 
greater portion of sales since the land grants were made, have 



192 SKETCHES OF THE 

been to speculators, who hold the lands for the increased value, 
which, in simple justice, ought to inure to the University. 

"In this way, a magnificent endowment, which, if husbanded, 
would have brought to the University hundreds of thousands 
of dollars, has been frittered away; and it is only just to claim 
that it is a sacred duty on the part of the state to make up to 
the University what has thus been lost. This duty of the state 
finds additional force, from the fact that the whole endowment 
of the University comes, not from the state, but from the gen- 
erosity of the federal government. Can the state do less 
than meet this generosity by the erection of such buildings as 
the growing wants of the University require. Thus far, it has 
erected but one building, the female college. That building 
filled an actual want, without which no progress could have 
been made. All who know aught of the workings of the Uni- 
versity have seen and acknowledged the wisdom of that appro- 
priation. That the substantial growth and usefulness of the 
University may keep pace with the growth of the state and the 
demands for a high grade of education, the time has now come 
when we must asrain come to the legislature for aid. A new 
building for all the purposes of progressive science has become 
an imperative necessity. The utter inadequacy of our present 
buildings to accommodate the classes, the need of more labor- 
atory room, the discomfort of teachers and scholars, the failure 
to reach the best results because of such contracted quarters, 
and the indispensable necessity to enable us to accommodate 
the rapidly increasing students, all appeal for this most neces- 
sary aid." 

In June, 1878, David B. Franken burger, Ph. B., was elect- 
ed, by the regents, to the professorship of rhetoric and oratory 
in the University, entering upon the discharge of the duties of 
his office at the beginning of the twenty-ninth university year. 
He was born October 13, 1845, in St. Lawrence county, Penn- 
sylvania. He received his earliest education in the common 
schools of his native place. He came with his parents to Wis- 
consin in 1855, the family settling in Green county. From 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 193 

that date until 1864, he worked on his father's farm, attending 
the district school during the winter months of each year. At 
the age of nineteen, he entered Milton academy. Rock county, 
Wisconsin, remaining there about two years, when he became 
a student of the University. Here, he graduated, with the 
degree of bachelor of philosophy, in 1869. 

After graduation, he was employed as instructor in the Uni- 
versity during the twentieth and twenty-first university years, 
and attended, during the latter year, the law school, from 
which he graduated in 1871. In the fall thereafter, he went 
to Milwaukee, and entered upon the practice of his profession, 
meeting with good success, and continuing in the law until 
1878, when he relinquished it, to accept the chair to which he 
had been called in the University, and which he now fills with 
credit and ability. 

Prof. Frankenburger's efforts in a literary way have hitherto 
been confined almost entirely to poetry. Of his published 
poems, those read before the literary societies and the alumni 
association of the University of Wisconsin, are the longest. 
That he should have been thrice selected in seven years, by 
the graduates of the institution, as poet, is a most emphatic 
recognition of his talents in courting the muses. His first 
poem read before the association (1870), was entitled, "My Old 
Home on a Rainy Day;" the second (1871), "The Bells that 
Hung at Bethlehem;" and the third (1877), "Our Welcome 
Home To the Alumni." 

In his less pretentious efforts, there are many thoughts very 
beautiful indeed. Several are noticed in a poem published in 
June, 1870, entitled, " Like Vapor it Passeth Away," lines 
dedicated to the memory of a young man accidentally killed 
while hunting on the banks of Dead lake, Wisconsin. Says 
the writer: 

On the wings of the morn, all scarlet and gray. 
Death came in our midst to sadden the day. 

After the particulars of the event are related, the anguish 
of the mother, upon hearing the terrible news, is thus left to 
the imagination of the reader: 



194 



Draw the curtains in close, tread soft on the floor, 
Tie up the bell's tongue, hang crape on the door, 
Let the sad-hearted mourners their lone watches keep, 
For loved ones must die, and mothers must weep. 

Then "earth to earth and dust to dust "- 

In the fresh spring earth, mould out his lone bed, 

Where the the willow trees weep o'er the home of the dead 

ends the poetic tribute to the memory of one Avhose young- 
life went out so suddenly. 

The following strikingly beautiful and highly poetic pas- 
sage is to be found in his last poem before the alumni of the 
University "Our Welcome Home:" 

There is nothing dead in this world of ours ; 
The rock has life as well as the flowers ; 
The atoms are prisoned, but living still, 
Are waiting the call of a forming will ; 
And the humble place they hold this hour, 
Shall be changed in the next to one of power. 
Unlocked by the tread of our hasty feet, 
In the bloom of flower and fruit shall meet ; 
For back of rock and bird and tree, 
Throbs the same great heart of Deity. 

A poem on " Dead Lake," read at the anniversary of the Hes- 
perian society, in 1868, is, as a whole, one of his best. 

Prof. Frankenburger has contributed articles upon various 
subjects to the daily papers of the state, all of which are 
characterized by close and original thought and excellence of 
composition. As a teacher, he is successful and popular. His 
aim is to awaken thought -to take the student as he is, and 
try to develope that which is best, always recognizing his 
bent, bias, and individual characteristics. He evidently con- 
siders it wholly wrong to endeavor to make all students like 
some ideal of his own. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



TWENTY-FIFTH UNIVERSITY YEAR THE LEWIS PRIZE APPRO- 
PRIATION FOR SCIENCE HALL SOLDIERS' ORPHANS' HOME DO- 


NATED TO THE UNIVERSITY AN ASSEMBLY HALL TO BE 

ERECTED LEGISLATIVE APPROPRIATION TO THE UNIVERSITY 

FUND INCOME TWENTY-SIXTH UNIVERSITY YEAR PURCHASE 

OF THE LAPHAM CABINET AND LIBRARY CONSTRUCTION OF A 

MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY FACULTY AND INSTRUCTORS FROM 

1872 TO 1876 THE JOHNSON BEQUEST TWENTY-SEVENTH 

UNIVERSITY YEAR. 

The twenty-fifth university year began September 2, 1874, 
and ended June 17, 1875, with the graduation, from the col- 
lege of arts, of Harriet E. Bacon, Carrie A. Barber, Isaac S. 
Bradley, Alice A. Crawford, Mary C. Draper, T. F. Frawley, 
F. S. Huntington, C. H. Lewis, Geo. S. Martin, Juliet D. 
Meyer, Clara Moore, W. H. Rogers, Geo. C. Synon, C. G. 
Thomas, Fannie West, James Melville, A. G. Schulz, and B. 
C. Walter, the last three with the degree of bachelor of civil 
engineering; A. D. Conover and James Moroney, Jr., graduat- 
ing as civil engineers: from the college of letters, as bachelors 
of arts, of W. G. Clough, Kate D. Dewey, A. S. Frank, C. F. 
Harding, F. S. Luhman, J. W. Mills, J. M. Mills, W. S. Noland; 
as bachelors of letters, H. A. Odell, C. E. Pickard, P. F. Stone, 
J. E. Wildish, and F. W. Winchester: from the law depart- 
ment, of L. J. Arthur, C. V. Bardeen, C. W. Bunn, J. H. 
Bottenseck, W. H. Butler, E. R. Carr, E. W. Chafin, Thos. 
Coleman, B. F. Dunwiddie, W. A. Franklin, C. S. Fuller, 



196 



SKETCHES OF THE 



Ansley Gray, L. E. Haynes, E. G. Hursb, J. C. Kerwin, Thos. 
Lynch, E. B. Manwaring, W. C. McLaiu, John McMahon, 
Duane Mowry, A. J. O'Keefe, A. D. Pratt, Henry Rosenberg, 
A. J. Schmitz, J. C. Sherwin, Jr., C. A. Starbird, William Street, 
E. H. Smaller, Mills Tourtellotte, Volney Underbill, G. A. 
Underwood, E. P. Vilas, Hempstead Washburn, E. G. Web- 
ster, J. B. Winslow, and E. R. Woodle. The oration before 
the alumni association was delivered by A. C. Parkinson, of the 
class of 1870; the poem was read by C. N. Gregory, of the 
class of 1871. The honorary degree of master of arts was con- 
ferred upon W. D. Barker; the honorary degree of master of 
science, upon R. H. Brown. 

In the year 1866, James T. Lewis donated to the Univer- 
sity the sum of two hundred dollars, for the purpose of dis- 
tributing medals to such meritorious students as should be- 
come entitled thereto, in accordance with the standard of 
merit to be prescribed by the regents and faculty. As the 
fund was hardly sufficient to accomplish the object of the 
donor, it remained at interest, by direction of the regents, 
until June 17, 1873, when, by resolution, the treasurer was in- 
structed to invest the principal and interest, amounting to 
three hundred dollars, in such interest-bearing securities as 
should seem to him most desirable. United States bonds were 
purchased, and the income therefrom set apart to be used as 
prizes. In June, 1874, the regents (with the consent of the 
donor), resolved to give a prize of twenty dollars each year, at 
such time and under such regulations as the faculty should 
determine, to the undergraduate student who should produce 
the best written essay. It was to be a "commencement piece," 
and the reward was first bestowed on commencement day, 
1875. The recipient was Fannie West, one of the graduates, 
on that day, from the college of arts. 

The forcible appeal ol the regents, in 1874, for aid to erect 
" a new building for all the purposes of progressive science," 
met a favorable response from the legislature of 1875. An 
act approved February 25th of that year, appropriated the sum 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 19* 

of eighty thousand dollars "to build an additional edifice for 
scientific purposes, upon the university grounds." The con- 
tract for the erection of the building was awarded to David 
Stevens, for the sum of sixty-nine thousand, nine hundred and 
seventy-five dollars, the edifice to be completed and ready 
for use October 1, 1877. The name to be given the structure 
was "science hall," a very appropriate one, as it was to be de- 
voted, when finished, " to the uses of instruction in the various 
branches of natural science." 

By an act approved March 5, 1875, the legislature trans- 
ferred the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, in Madison, Wisconsin, 
to the regents, authorizing them to establish, as contemplated 
by the reconstruction act of 1866, a medical college or course 
of lectures upon all branches usually taught in such an insti- 
tution, when, in their judgment, such college should be re- 
quired by the medical profession of the state. But the presi- 
dent of the University, in his report for 1875, said: "The 
time does not seem to have arrived for the establishment of a 
medical department. The profession of the state are not 
agreed as to the desirability of a medical college in its bounds, 
and comparatively few earnestly support such an institution. 
Such a college, if established, should certainly be located at 
Milwaukee, as affording, by its size, far more clinical advan- 
tages than Madison, or than any other place within the state. 
We should be glad to unite a medical college in Milwaukee to 
the University; and should hope both to aid it, and receive 
aid from it." The suggestion was favorably considered by the 
legislature of 1876; for an act was passed authorizing the sale 
of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home by the regents, or its use for 
any purpose they might deem expedient. It has since been 
disposed of, and an academy and theological seminary estab- 
lished therein, where instruction is given exclusively in the 
Norwegian language. 

It was now that the necessity for an assembly hall was be- 
ginning to be keenly felt by the faculty of the University. 
" We have no room," said the president, " that will hold our 



198 SKETCHES OF THE 

students, and we do not ordinarily meet daily more than a 
third or a fifth of them. General and positive influence is im- 
possible under these conditions. The spirit of the University, 
the temper of the body of the students, is of more importance, 
even, than the quality of the instruction, though the two are 
intimately associated. We desire exceedingly, a hearty, gen- 
erous, pleasurable response of the students to the work ex- 
pected of them. Anything opposed to this, embitters, nar- 
rows, and wastes the lives of all. To secure this, in any good 
degree, demands a high-toned, earnest, and wise spirit on the 
part of instructors; a concessive, generous one on the part of 
students; and free intercourse between officers and students, 
establishing a common life." In other words, "the work of 
unifying, compacting, and organizing a large body of students, 
so that they might be swayed by one common impulse and 
spirit," it was manifest could only be carried forward in a hall 
of sufficient size to seat all the students of the University. 
Therein could be given, at stated intervals, rhetorical exer- 
cises; therein could be given "those occasional talks, frequent 
hints on discipline, deportment, and practical suggestions of a 
miscellaneous sort, which are never so appropriately or effect- 
ively given to detachments as to the entire body of pupils." 
"We lack," said the president, in a previous report, "the op- 
portunity of assembling the students in a body, of imparting 
to them general incentives, of inspiring in them a common 
spirit, or even of making to all alike the simplest communica- 
tion. We are also cut off from any common literary enter- 
tainments or rhetorical exercises among ourselves." 

The regents, too, had, for some years, not only seen the ab- 
solute necessity for an assembly hall for the University, capa- 
ble of accommodating all the students, where the president of 
the institution could, at specified times, or whenever necessary, 
meet his entire charge face to face, and where lectures could be 
given or society exercises held; but they had also seen the 
necessity for a material enlargement of the library accommoda- 
tions, and to meet these wants had economized and husband- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 199 

ed their resources for two years. They so far. succeeded, that, 
with the funds then on hand, and what they might reasonably 
expect to reserve thereafter for that purpose, they deemed it 
wise and expedient to contract for the erection of an assembly 
hall and library, so long and so much needed. They accord- 
ingly let the contract to responsible parties for the erection of 
a building suitable in character and design, for the purpose 
named, upon the university grounds, to cost, when completed, 
not more than thirty thousand dollars, the whole to be finished 
and ready for use by the first day of October, 1879. 

In order to permanently provide for deficiencies in the uni- 
versity fund income, the legislature, by a law approved March 
6, 1870, declared that there should be levied and collected for 
the year 187G, and annually thereafter, a state tax of one- 
tenth of one mill for each dollar of the assessed valuation of 
the taxable property of the state, and the amount so levied 
and collected was especially appropriated to the university 
fund income. This was to be in lie'u of all other appropria- 
tions before that time provided by law for the benefit of the 
fund income, and it was to be deemed a full compensation for 
all deficiencies in the income arising from the disposition of 
the lands donated to the state by congress, in trust for the 
benefit of the University. It was also provided that from and 
after the fourth day of July, 1876, no student or candidate for 
admission to the University, who had, at that time, been a 
resident of the state for one year, should be required to pay 
any fees for tuition therein; but this was not to apply to those 
taking extra studies, or such as might attend the law depart- 
ment. 

Wisconsin, by this act of its legislature, placed its University 
on a solid and substantial basis; making amends for the past, 
and giving promise for the future. The regents, in their re- 
port for 1876, say: "By the enlightened action of the legis- 
lature, at its last annual session, the relations of the state to 
the university fund income have been wisely and permanently 
settled, and the reliable resources of the institution thereby 



200 SKETCHES OF THE 

increased to such reasonable extent as to inspire complete con- 
fidence in the future ability of the University to realize the 
beneficent purposes of its organization. The compensation 
thus accorded by law for deficiencies arising from the disposi- 
tion of the lands donated to the state by congress, in trust for 
the University, is not deemed to be in excess of the necessi- 
ties of the University, or of the just and equitable obligations 
of the state. Nevertheless, the regents have not hesitated to 
accept the conclusions of the state gratefully, as a final and 
satisfactory adjustment of the principal questions relating to 
such trust, hitherto in controversy/' Certainly the honor of 
the state requires it to be final; and every true friend of the 
University desires it. It gives the institution a position 
among the best in the country such a position as contem- 
plated by the general government in its liberal donation of 
lands. Said a committee of the legislature, in 1877, in 
commenting upon the passage of the act referred to: "If, at 
its present state of development, the University were brought 
to us afresh with its claims, we could in wisdom not do other- 
wise than we have done, even if the money were ours and not 
another's, and endow it as we have endowed it. A steadfast, 
liberal, and wise policy would demand this. The economical 
and wise management of the regents, the increasing reputation 
of the University, its faithfulness to its educational work, 
unite to justify the confidence and support expressed by the 
act of last winter, and to make it the duty of the legislature to 
maintain this action of the state." 

The twenty-sixth university year commenced September 8, 
1875, and ended June 21, 1876, with the graduation from the 
college of letters, of H. R. Cook, R. B. Dudgeon, E. T. Fames, 
Albert S. Ritchie, Helen D. Street, and \V. H. Williams, in 
the ancient classical course, as bachelors of arts; H. S. Dan- 
iels, Agnes A. Hascall, J. W. Hiner, A. H. Xoyes, R. E. Xoyes, 
and Helen Remington, in the modern classical course, as bach- 
elors of letters: from the college of arts, of Sarah C. Ames, 
Lizzie G. Atwood, J. H. Calkins, Tirza J. Chapman, Lillie S. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 201 

Clark, C. S. Dietz, Emma E. Dudgeon, B. W. Gillett, Mary 
M. Henry, Elinor Henry, E. R. Hicks, Caroline A. Hobart, 
Clara I. Lyon, D. E. McKercher, Elizabeth A. Meyer, Mary L. 
Nelson, Mary J. Oertel, A. E. Smith, Abbie D. Stuart, G. C. 
Stockman, Fannie A. Walbridge, Nellie M. Williams, E. C. 
"Wiswall, and Elsena Wiswall, as bachelors of science; G. P. 
Bradish, J. J. Fisher, J. B. Trowbridge, and W. W. Wood, as 
bachelors of civil engineering; Geo. Haven and Oliver Mat- 
thews, as bachelors of mining engineering: C. F. Ains worth, 
W. H. Baird, W. P. Baker, S. J. Bradford, A. H. Bright, Z. 
A. Church, Henry Frawley, E. C. Higbee, A. L. Lament, O. L. 
' Larson, F. M. Lawrence, L. K. Luse, Geo. L T . Leeson, F. L. 
Morrill, H. M. Needles, T. J. Pereles, James Quirk, E. H. 
Ryan, W. H. Rogers, W. F. Redmon, Oliver Schee, J. D. F. 
Stone, W. A. Short, C. S. Taylor, and C. A. Youmans, in the 
law department. The oration before the alumni association 
was delivered by Alexander C. Botkin, of the class of 1859; 
and the poem was read by G. H. Noyes, of the class of 1873. 
The honorary degree of master of arts was conferred upon J. 
J. Thornton; that of doctor of laws, upon J. H. Carpenter and 
W. A. F. Brown. The Lewis prize was awarded to A. S. 
Ritchie. 

By act of the legislature approved March 13, 1870, the gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin was authorized to purchase the cabinet 
and library of Increase A. Laphain, deceased, and cause the 
same to be placed and kept in the University. For the pur- 
pose of carrying into effect this act, the sum of ten thousand 
dollars was appropriated. The purchase was made, and the 
valuable and extensive collection was soon in possession of 
the regents. The cabinet includes the results of many years 
of patient and discriminating labor of a citizen who was one 
of the most devoted and self-sacrificing students ot natural 
science in the United States. 

In the year 1875, the regents received an application from 
the coast survey department of the United States for the erec- 
tion of a magnetic observatory upon the university grounds. 



202 SKETCHES OF THE 

The officers of the survey proposed to furnish all the neces- 
sary instruments, and assume the care and cost of superin- 
tendence, upon the simple condition that the University would 
provide the building required for conducting the observations 
prescribed. The interests of science, as well as state pride, 
dictated a prompt acceptance of the proposal. The result was 
the construction of the observatory, under the personal direc- 
tion of an officer of the department named. A similar observ- 
atory had been constructed previously at the Smithsonian in- 
stitution, and another exists at Toronto, under the patronage 
of the British government but the longitude of the two local- 
ities being so nearly similar, the observatory- at Washington 
has been dismantled and abandoned, and that now completed 
in connection with the University, therefore, is the only ob- 
servatory of the kind within the limits of the United States. 
It is relied upon exclusively by our government in the experi- 
mental investigation of this interesting practical science with- 
in the borders of our own territory. 

The specific object sought to be accomplished by this 
magnetic observatory is a continuous and reliable record 
of the variations in the direction and intensity of the earth's 
magnetic force, by means of photographi? self-registration. 
The instruments provided by the government are similar to 
those used in Greenwich, Paris, and other European localities 
for a like purpose. The building is adapted to the object, by 
being located apart from all other structures, entirely under 
ground, and built without iron. The floor of the instrument 
room is sixteen by eighteen and a half feet in superficial area, 
and this room is protected from exterior influences by an 
arched ceiling six feet or more beneath the surface of the 
ground, and by an air chamber, enclosed, at the sides, by 
heavy stone walls, and at the top by brick work. Both inner 
and exterior walls are firmly laid in hydraulic cement, and are 
thus rendered impervious to moisture and exempt from 
changes in atmospheric temperature. Ventilation is secured 
by means of pipes leading from the floor to the surface above, 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 203 

and a flue connecting with the surrounding air space. Water 
for photographic operations and sewerage is also provided for, 
by pipe connections simple and efficient in arrangement, and 
the interior is perpetually lighted by the burners provided for 
photographic registration. While the results anticipated from 
the series of observations undertaken by the government in 
this line of investigation are likely to prove of the highest 
scientific and practical importance, the aid given by the Uni- 
versity has been merely nominal. 

The faculty and instructors for the twenty-third university 
year (1872-1873), were J. H. Twombly, president and profess- 
or of mental and moral philosophy; John W. Sterling, vice- 
president and professor of mathematics and astronomy; Wil- 
liam F. Allen, professor of Latin and history; S. H. Carpenter, 
professor of logic, rhetoric, and English literature; Alexander 
Kerr, professor of Greek languages and literature, and prin- 
cipal of preparatory department; John B. Feuling, professor 
of modern languages and comparative philology; W. J. L. 
Nicodemus, professor of military science and civil engineering; 
John B. Parkinson, professor of civil polity and international 
law; John E. Davies, professor of natural history and chemis- 
try; W. W. Daniells, professor of agriculture and analytical 
chemistry; Roland D. Irving, professor of geology, mining, 
and metallurgy; Orsamus Cole, W. P. Lyon, H. S. Orton, J. 
H. Carpenter, and W. F. Vilas, professors of law, with P. L. 
Spooner, dean of law faculty; R! B. Anderson, instructor in 
languages; R. H. Brown, instructor in English; and James 
W. Bashford, instructor in Greek and English; Mrs. 1). E. 
Carson, preceptress; Miss Joseph Magoon, assistant precept- 
ress; Lizzie S. Spencer, teacher of English; Augusta Buttner, 
teacher of French and German; Ella F. Sage and Sue R. 
Earnest, teachers of instrumental music; Mary C. Woodvvorth, 
teacher of vocal music; and Annie Cushman, teacher of draw- 
ing and oil painting. 

For the twenty-fourth university year (1873-1874), the fac- 
ulty and instructors were the same as the previous year, ex- 



204 SKETCHES OF THE 

cept that John Bascom took the place of J. H. Twombiy, as 
president and professor of mental and moral philosophy; and 
J. B. Parkinson resigned the chair of civil polity and inter- 
national law, and retired from the University. H. S. Orton 
also resigned as professor of law; R. H. Brown was made in- 
structor in natural history and assistant curator of cabinet; 
John M. Olin, instructor in rhetoric and oratory. James W. 
Bashford having left the institution, J. H. Salisbury became 
instructor in Greek and Latin, and J. C. Fuller, in English; 
while J. R. Stewart was employed as teacher of drawing. 
Augusta Buttner, teacher of French and German; Ella F. 
Sage, teacher of instrumental music; Mary.C. "Wood worth, 
teacher of vocal music; and Annie Cushman, teacher of draw- 
ing and oil painting, left the University; Miss S. A. Carver 
being employed to teach French and German; and Hattie E. 
Hunter, vocal music. For the twenty-fifth university year 
(1874-1875), the instructional force remained unchanged. 

For the twenty-sixth university year (18751876), the fac- 
ulty and instructors continued the same, except that I. C. 
Sloan was chosen as a professor of law; while E. A. Birge 
took the instructorship of natural history and became assistant 
curator of cabinet, in place of R. H. Brown; and F. S. Hunt- 
ington was elected in place of J. C. Fuller, as instructor in 
English. A. D. Conover was employed as an assistant in civil 
engineering, and M. R. French took the places of Sue R. 
Earnest and Hattie E. Hunter, as teacher of vocal and instru- 
mental music. Lizzie S. Spencer's services as teacher of 
English were discontinued. Astronomy was dropped from 
the chair of John W. Sterling, and chemistry from that of 
John E. Davies: Prof. Sterling filling the office of vice-president 
and professor of mathematics only; while to Prof. Davies was as- 
signed the re-arranged professorship of astronomy and physics. 
In a communication addressed to the president of the Uni- 
versity, dated February 12, 1876, John A. Johnson, of Madi- 
son, Wisconsin, donated the sum of five thousand dollars, (one- 
half to be paid to the treasurer of the University, January 1, 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 205 

1877, and one-half January 1, 1878), as a perpetual fund, "the 
annual income from which shall be devoted to aiding needy 
students at the University of Wisconsin, who have, previously 
to entering the institiuton, attended the common school in the 
United States at least one year in the aggregate before fifteen 
years of age, and have attended the University at least one 
term; or, if they have not attended the common school afore- 
said, they must have attended the University at least one year. 
Until the year 1900, such students only as either read or speak 
(or both) any of the Scandinavian languages (Norse, Swedish, 
Danish, or Icelandic), reasonably well, shall receive aid from 
this fund. No student shall receive more than fifty dollars in 
one year, nor shall more than two hundred dollars in the aggre- 
gate be given to any one student. The president or acting- 
president of the University, together with two of the profes- 
sors that the president may designate, shall constitute a com- 
mittee to distribute the aid to the students under the provis- 
ions of this bequest. All applications for aid must be made 
to said committee, who are hereby authorized to make such 
rules in relation thereto as they deem proper. No distinction 
in sex shall be made by the committee in giving aid. It should 
be impressed upon the students who may apply for such aid, 
the duty of paying back to the fund, as soon as they may be 
fairly and reasonably able to do so, the full amount they may 
have received from it. The money thus paid back to be added 
to and treated as a part of the original fund." In accordance 
with the terms of this donation, Mr. Johnson, on the 28th day 
of December, 1876, turned over to the University, securities 
amounting to twenty-five hundred dollars. Since then, an ad- 
ditional sum of like amount has been handed in by the donor, 
the whole drawing ten per cent, interest, payable annually. 
The result has been the establishment of ten annual scholarships 
of fifty dollars each, the first of which were bestowed during the 
twenty-sixth university year. Doubtless the value of these 
scholarships, and the need of additional ones, will be more and 
more apparent as the University advances. 



206 SKETCHES OF THE 

The beginning of the twenty-seventh university vear was 
on the sixth of September, 1876; its ending, June 20, 1877. 
There were graduated from the college of letters in the an- 
cient classical course, as bachelors of arts, Brigham Bliss, C. L. 
Dudley, Franklin Fisher, Howard Morris, and S. W. Trousdale; 
in the modern classical course, as bachelors of letters, Alexan- 
der Craven and Mary Hill: from the college of arts course in 
general science, Carrie B. Carpenter, S. H. Cook, T. H. Gill, 
Benedict Goldenberger, F. N. Hendrix, Hattie M. Hover, E. 
M. Lowry, Florence E. Mitchell, Frank Moore, Annie A. Por- 
ter, A. C. Prescott, J. C. Rathbun, Matilda Reuel, H. J. Smith, 
Alice Stickney, Nellie M. Tate, W. E. Todd, S. M. Williams, 
and H. C. Wood as bachelors of science; as bachelors of civil 
engineering, John F. Albers, J. P. Paine, N. F. Phillips, J. M. 
Turner, and James Whelan, Jr.; and as bachelor of mining and 
metallurgy, W. A. Hover: from the law department, H. W. 
Bingham, H. H. Curtis, J. J. Fruit, W. W. Haseltine, John T. 
Kean, Herman Pfund, F. E. Purple, James Reynolds, W. F. 
White, and John T. Yule. The oration before the alumni as- 
sociation was delivered by James L. High of the class of 1864. 
The poem was read by D. B. Frankenburger of the class of 
1869. The Lewis prize was awarded to Charles L. Dudley. 
The degree of bachelor of philosophy was conferred upon F. 
E. Parkinson, speciale gratia: the honorary degree of civil 
engineer, upon James Melville; and that of master of science, 
upon C. H. Hall. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN- 



CHAPTER XIX. 

COEDUCATION OF THK SEXES TWENTY-EIGHTH UNIVERSITY 

YEAR THE WASHBURN ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY ERECT- 
ED AND FURNISHED COMPLETION OF SCIENCE HALL IN- 
STRUCTIONAL FORCE FOR THE TWENTY-SEVENTH AND TWEN- 
TY-EIGHTH UNIVERSITY YEARS. 

" During the past year [the twenty-fifth university year]," 
said the president in his report to the regents, the young 
women have been put, in all respects, on precisely the same 
footing in the University with the young men. No difficul- 
ties have arisen from it. There were eight young women 
among graduates at the last commencement [June 17, 1875]. 
Their average scholarship was certainly as high as that of the 
young men, and they are apparently in good health." But the 
board of visitors for 1877, thus took issue with the president, 
in their report concerning coeducation in the institution: "It 
is now several years since the experiment of the coeducation of 
the sexes was begun in the University. In respect to the pro- 
ficiency shown by the young women in the several classes dur- 
ing the recent examinations, as compared with the young men, 
our impressions coincide with former boards of visitors. They 
sustained the test at least as creditably as the young men; and, 
if there was a difference, we are inclined to think it was in fa- 
vor of the young women. In the main, they excelled in the 
precision and promptitude with which they responded to ques- 
tions. We were, however, deeply impressed with appearance 
of ill-health which most of them presented. It would not 



208 SKETCHES OF THE 

seem probable that, by mere coincidence, so many young 
women should be congregated together ottering this peculiar- 
ity. There are a few notable exceptions, but, as a whole, this 
appearance is unmistakable, and has given rise to considerable 
comment among the members of the board. There can be 
nothing about the hygienic condition of the University, in any 
of its parts, which would give rise to ill-health. Every part 
examined presented an appearance of cleanliness; the food in 
the ladies' hall was wholesome and well prepared; the service 
rooms clean; the dormitories well lighted and aired, and of 
sufficient capacity. We are, therefore, compelled to look else- 
where for the cause. 

"Every physiologist is well aware, that, at stated times, nat- 
ure makes a great demand upon the energies of early woman- 
hood, and that at these times great caution must be exercised 
lest injury be done an injury which, it is well known, may 
prove permanent. In order to keep place in the University 
classes, where the sexes are educated together, no account is 
taken of the fact that the woman labors under a double disad- 
vantage, as compared with the man: 1st, in the circumstance 
that nature compels compliance with its well established laws, 
and, as above stated, makes demands upon her energies; and, 
2d, that, to keep her class standing, the girl must devote more 
energy, and, consequently, work harder, to accomplish her task, 
making drafts upon her system, which, by the very nature of 
the case, is already taxed to meet the physiological demands 
made upon it. It is also well known that overwork, in what- 
ever way induced, at the times indicated, will porduce deteri- 
oration of the system, which generally manifests itself by 
bloodlessness, followed by a train of evils which it is not nec- 
essary here to enumerate. It is this very condition of blood- 
lessness which is so noticeable in the women of the University 
at this time. The sallow features, the pearly whiteness of the 
eye, the lack of color, the want of physical developement in 
the majority, and an absolute expression of anremia in very 
many of the women students, all indicate that demands are 
made upon them which they cannot meet. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 209 

"Education is greatly to be desired, but it is better that the 
future matrons of the state should be without a University 
training than that it should be procured at the fearful expense 
of ruined health; better that the future mothers of the state 
should be robust, hearty, healthy women, than that, by over 
study, they entail upon their descendants the germs of disease. 
And there is no more certain law than that of heredity. The 
over-wrought nervous system undermines the general health 
stealthily, but certainly, and its evil consequences are prolong- 
ed in many cases through life. 

"We are aware that the law organizing the University pro- 
vides that it shall be open for the education of men and women. 
It is not therefore necessary that both classes of students be 
subjected to the same systematic course of training, mental 
drill being attained in a variety of ways, each leading to ade- 
quate results; and the thought impressed itself upon some of 
the members of the board that the curriculum could be so or- 
dered that both sexes might obtain University drill, adjusted 
in such a manner that each sex should be enabled to secure 
that form of education best fitted to his or her respective sphere, 
and that the system of compelling men and women to fare 
alike might be so modified as to preclude the possibility of 
causing disease. We are forced to the conviction that there 
is, at present, a marked disparity between the health of the 
men and women of the University, and that, as a class, the 
women present undoubted evidences of physical deterioration. 
If the board of regents, however, consider it expedient to alter 
the curriculum in any way, we would earnestly recommend 
that particular attention be paid to the physical well-being of 
the female students." 

The reply of the regents was made in their report for 1877. 
They say: 

"The argument of the board of visitors relates more directly 
to the degree of education which female students are physical- 
ly enabled to acquire within a given time, than to the expedi- 
ency of coeducation in the abstract. We are furthermore as- 



210 SKETCHES OF THE 

sured, in a semi-official way, that the board of visitors do not 
wish to be understood as recommending a denial of any of the 
existing privileges of the University in any class of student?, 
but as suggesting, simply, such modification in the courses of 
instruction as will render them available to female students 
who may prefer less exacting mental labor, and a minor degree 
of culture. 

"It is not claimed that the problem of coeducation has been 
finally determined, in its relation to capacity for mental culture, 
and still less in its relation to the personal association of the 
sexes in our universities. Nor is this problem in either respect 
one which can or ought to be determined upon special data, or 
upon limited observation and experience, here or elsewhere. 
The whole civilized world is concerned in the experiment, and 
by the final judgment of all the parties to the controversy we 
shall be forced to abide. 

"However that may be, no doubt ought to obtain as to the 
duty of the University to maintain that higher standard of in- 
struction by which alone it can claim an honest title to its 
proper rank and name. And if, unfortunately, there are stu- 
dents, or classes of students, unfitted by nature or preparatory 
training for that extent of progress and intellectual develope- 
ment necessary to entitle them to the honors and rewards of 
university education, obviously their place is elsewhere. 

"This view is further enforced by the fact that, by the law 
and theory of its organization, the University occupies a spe- 
cific position in the general plan of public education, with 
duties limited to a special plane of educational service. Be- 
tween its work and that of the common school, the high school, 
the private school, the academy, or the boarding school, there 
is justly no conflict or confusion ot energy, and can be none 
while neither seeks to usurp the proper functions of the other. 
"So far as coeducation refers specifically to the personal and 
social relations of the sexes, however, ordinary prudence sug- 
gests a considerable degree of conservatism. While we can- 
not consistently lower the standard of university education, 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 211 

there certainly exists no obstruction to the enforcement of 
such rules of discipline in respect to students in attendance 
upon the University, as best conform to the average views of 
parents and guardians, and a wholesome public opinion." 

The president of the university, in his communication to the 
regents, for 1877, answered the board of visitors: 

"One thing we profoundly regretted in the report of the 
board of visitors, and that was the opinion expressed by them 
as to the health of the young women. There were some pass- 
ing appearances, arising from the excessive studiousness of a 
few not naturally strong, that gave the criticism a color of 
truth, and were, doubtless, the grounds of the conviction in 
the minds of the committee. These reasons, however, were 
very partial and by no means sufficient for the broad conclu- 
sions drawn from them; conclusions arising from exceedingly 
limited observation, and which did not command the assent of 
all the committee. We regret these opinions because they 
tend to open a controversy just closed, and to compel us to 
travel a second time over ground already painfully trodden, 
and this with the prospect of no other or better issue than that 
already reached. To be pushed back into the water, when we 
have just reached shore, is trying. 

"The faculty, most of whom were in the outset opposed to 
coeducation, and who have had years of observation both as to 
its relation to education and to the health of young women, 
pronounce earnestly and unanimously in favor of the mainte- 
nance of our present method. 

"Contrary to the opinion of the visitors, the young women 
do their work with less rather than with greater labor than the 
young men, and certainly do not fall below them in any respect 
as scholars. We also believe this labor to be done by them 
with perfect safety to health, nay, with advantage to health if 
ordinary prudence is exercised. The young women, whose 
health was primarily the ground of criticism, have improved 
in strength, rather that deteriorated, since they have been with 
us, though they have burdened themselves with extra work 
which we do not counsel. 



212 SKETCHES OF THE 

"We confess to some surprise that so many of the medical 
profession bring forward for the first time in connection with 
coeducation, a function familiar from the dawn of human life, 
as if it had the force of a fresh discovery in putting 1 down this 
form of progress, when, in fact, it has no more to do with co- 
education than with separate education; can as well be provid- 
ed for in the one form of instruction as the other; and bears 
with ten-fold force against the labors of women as operatives, 
clerks, teachers, housekeepers, in which callings continuous 
hard work has been allowed to pass utterly unchallenged. 

"Though my conviction has been, previous to this report, 
that the health of the young women as a whole was better than 
that of the young men, and that there were" striking instances 
of graduation among the young women with robust strength, 1 
am striving to test this opinion by facts, so far with the follow- 
ing results. All excuses for ill health are given ' by me. The 
exact number of students in our collegiate and dependent 
courses is three hundred and fifty-seven. Of this number, 
ninety-three are young women, a trifle more than one-quarter. 
During the past eight weeks, the most trying weeks in the 
year for students, there have been one hundred and fifty-five 
days of absence from ill health on the part of young men, 
and eighteen on the part of young women. The young women 
should have lost, according to their numbers, fifty-four days, 
or three times as many as they have actually lost. The stu- 
dents were not aware that any such registration was being 
made. It may be felt that the young men are less conscien- 
tious in pleading ill health than the young women, and this is 
doubtless true ; but I sharply question a young man, and rarely 
ask any questions of a young woman. I explain the facts in 
this way. The young men are not accustomed to confinment, 
and though sun-browned and apparently robust, they do not 
endure the violent transition as well as women. Study is more 
congenial to the habits of young women, and the visiting com- 
mittee are certainly mistaken in supposing that they have to 
work harder in accomplishing their tasks. The reverse is true. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 213 

In addition to the above bill of ill health against the young 
men, a corresponding large number of them has been compelled, 
from the same cause, to leave the University altogether. 

"A second showing of the registrating, which I had not con- 
templated, but one very interesting, is this; the absences of 
the young women are almost exclusively in the lower classes. 
Of the eighteen, two are in the sub-freshmen, fourteen in the 
freshmen, one in the sophmore, one in the junior, and none in 
in the senior. The absences of the young men are evenly dis- 
tributed, on the other hard, through the entire course. The 
.young women do not then seem to deteriorate with us in health, 
but quite the opposite. I do not belong to the number of 
.those who set lightly by health. I would not sacrifice any 
measure of it for scholarship; but it has long seemed to me 
plain, that a young woman who withdraws herself from society 
and gives herself judiciously to a college course, is far better 
circumstanced in reference to health that the great majority of 
her sex." 

Said the board of visitors for 1878, (one dissenting): "We 
do not concur in the criticisms made by some, upon the 
.system of coeducation, and we are, on the whole, not ill- 
pleased with the evidence of physical strength on the part of 
the ladies; but we think there is much yet to desire in that 
respect. There should be provision for regular and rigorous 
exercise for the female pupils, and for systematic cultivation 
of their health and strength." And thus, the president, for 
the same year: "The record of health, kept through the year, 
shows, especially in the upper classes, less interruption in 
work by ill-health among the young women than among the 
young men. In the last senior class, the young women were 
one-fourth of the wflble number. Their absences from sick- 
ness were one-tenth. In the junior class, the first ratio was 
one-fourth, the second one-sixth. In the sophomore class, the 
first was one-fourth, the second one-eleventh. We certainly 
see no proof that the health of the young women suffers with 
us from their work. There are clear indications to the con- 



21-4 SKETCHES OF THE 

trary." So far, then, as the University of Wisconsin is con- 
cerned, it may be said that the problem has finally been solved 
in favor not only of the propriety but also of the feasibility of 
the co-education of the sexes. 

The twenty-eighth university year began September 5, 1877, 
and ended June 19, 1878, with the graduation, from the col- 
lege of letters in the ancient classical course, as bachelors of 
arts, of F. K. Couover, W. A. Germain, Mary Hill, C. E. 
Hooker, Francis E. Noyes, O. W. Ray, and H. J. Taylor; in 
the modern classical course, as bachelor of letters, of Alexan- 
der Berger: from the college of arts, in general science, C. E. 
Buell, W. A. Corson, H. W. Eaton, W. S. Field, Helen L. 
Hatch, Alice F. Frisby, Almah J. Frisby, W. J. Fuller, B. F. 
Gilman, T. P. Lindley, Martha Mann, Nettie L. Porter F. B. 
Robinson, R. G. Siebecker, and Lewis E. Walker, as bache- 
lors of science; as bachelor of agriculture, of W. W. Brown; 
as bachelor of civil engineering, of W. H. Bradley; as civil 
engineers, of Geo P. Bradish, Win. Munroe, and John F. Al- 
bers; and as metallurgical engineer, of Oliver Matthews: from 
the law department, of Carroll Atwood, F. E. Briggs, F. C. 
Brooks, S. O. Campbell, T. H. Gill, L. P. Hale, J. S. Keyes, 
P. V. Lawson, J. R. Matthews, A. H. Noyes, R. E. Noyes, J. 
O'Connor, R. B. Salter, E. H. Sprague, E. A. Tucker, R. F. 
Wilbur, R. F. Pettigrew, and Win. Windsor, Jr. The oration 
before the alumni association was delivered by S. S. Gregory, 
of the class of 1870, and the poem was read by Mrs. Clara D. 
Bewick Colby, of the class of 1869. The Lewis prize was 
awarded to F. K. Conover. The honorary degree of doctor of 
laws was conferred upon O. M. Conover. 

During the year 1876, the regents and faculty of the Uni- 
versity, as well as the public generally, vere informed that it 
was the intention of Cadwalader C. Washburn, to donate to 
the institution, finished and completely equipped, an astro- 
nomical observatory. This public-spirited and generous citi- 
zen of Wisconsin, having in view the immediate erection of 
the building, caused to be inserted in the act of 1876, u to per- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 215 

manently provide for deficiencies in the university fund in- 
come," this section: "From and out of the receipts of said 
tax [that u of one-tenth of one mill for each dollar of the 
assessed valuation of the taxable property of the state "] the 
sum of three thousand dollars annually shall be set apart for 
astronomical work and for instruction in astronomy, to be ex- 
pended under the direction of the regents of the University of 
Wisconsin so soon as a complete and well-equipped observa- 
tory shall be given the University, in its own grounds, without 
cost to the state: provided, that such observatory shall be 
completed within three years from the passage of this act." 

The donor, within the time prescribed, erected upon the 
university grounds, a beautiful stone building, finely situated, 
and well fitted, for the purpose intended. Its length is eighty 
feet; its breadth, forty-two feet; and its height, forty-eight 
feet. A spacious ante-room opens, on the right, into a com- 
puting room; on the left, into a transit room; and in front, 
into the base of the tower. Over the door to the rotunda, is a 
marble tablet, bearing this inscription: "Erected and finished, 
A. I). 1878, by the munificence of Cadwalader 0. Washburn, 
and by him presented to the University of Wisconsin a trib- 
ute to general science. In recognition of this gift, this tablet 
is inserted by the regents of the University." Stairs ascend 
from the ante-room below to the ante-room above, which opens 
into the dome. Here is the great telescope. It has a sixteen- 
inch object-glass, and is one of the best instruments of its 
size in the world. The building, in all its arrangements, com- 
pletely equipped as it is, is exceedingly well adapted to astro- 
nomical work and instruction the object had in view by the 
giver in his generous benefaction. 

Science hall, which was contracted for two years previous, 
was finished within the time specified in the contract with the 
builder, and was made available for all the purposes for which 
it was erected, during the twenty-eighth university year. The 
entire cost of the structure, exclusive of steam and water, was 
a little less than eighty thousand dollars. It is an edifice im- 



216 SKETCHES OF THE 

posing in its appearance, and extremely well ada'pted for sci- 
entific purposes and instruction. Said the president of the 
University, in his report for the fiscal year closing September 
30, 1877: "Science hall is in full occupation, and we are 
daily more and more gratified by its resources, and the possi- 
bilities of growth which it offers. Our present apparatus en- 
ables us to commence our work to advantage, while there are 
constant suggestions of new wants and enlarged instruction. 
The present material for our mineralogical, geological, and 
zoological museums is sufficient to furnish the basis of a fine 
collection; yet there is room left for the work of many years." 
This large and beautiful building is three stories high' above 
the basement. In the latter, are the assay laboratory, work 
room, qualitative chemical laboratory, store rooms, physical 
laboratory, and other rooms; also different shops, furnaces, 
and other necessary appliances. Upon the second floor, are 
the chemical lecture room, preparation room, balance room, 
quantitative chemical laboratory, private laboratory, studies 
of professors of chemistry and physics, physical lecture room, 
electrical measurements, cabinet for physical apparatus, spec- 
troscope room, photometer room, physical store room, and 
other apartments. The third floor contains the geological 
lecture room, apparatus room, mineralogical and blow-pipe 
laboratory, study of professor of geology, professor's private 
library, engineering instrument room, engineering lecture 
room, mechanical drafting room, engineering drafting room, 
study of professor of engineering, and other rooms. There are, 
upon the fourth floor, cabinets, the students' work room, nat- 
ural history lecture room, study of professor of natural history, 
art gallery, and curator's study. It will be seen, therefore, that 
the building furnishes ample and very superior conveniences 
for instruction in the physical sciences. 

The changes in the instructional force of the University for 
the twenty-seventh university year (1876-1877), were as fol- 
low: John B. Parkinson was elected to the professorship of 
civil polity and international law, and R. B. Anderson, to that 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 217 

> 

of Scandinavian languages, to whose duties was also added 
that of instructor in Greek. To the law department, were 
added two professors S. U. Pinney and J. B. Cassoday. The 
places of J. H. Salisbury, F. S. Huntington, and J. 11. Stuart 
were left vacant. Miss M. Murdock was employed as instruct- 
or in English and elocution. The changes for the twenty- 
eighth university year were few: The chair of civil polity and 
international law was changed to that of civil polity and polit- 
ical economy and J. B. Parkinson continued therein. R. B. 
Anderson was relieved from the duties of instructor in Greek, 
and made librarian. In the law department, J. H. Carpenter 
became dean of the faculty, in place of J. C. Hopkins, re- 
signed. S. W. Talbot took the position of. assistant in civil 
engineering, while C. I. King was placed in charge of the 
machine shop. S. W. Trousdale became instructor in English 
and elocution, and C. P. Etten, in vocal and instrumental mu- 
sic. For the twenty-ninth university year (1878-1879), the 
chair of modern languages and comparative philology was left 
vacant, caused by the death of Prof. J. B. Feuling; while a 
new professorship of rhetoric and oratory was created, and the 
chair filled by 1). B. Frankenburger. Before the ending of 
the year, the professorships of logic and English literature, 
and of military science and civil and mechanical engineering, 
were made vacant by the deaths of Profs. S. H. Carpenter and 
W. J. L. Nicodemus. E. T. Owen was elected instructor in 
modern languages; A. D. Conover, in mathematics, E. J. 
Nichols, as assistant in civil engineering; G. Muehlhaeuser, as 
instructor in Latin and modern languages; H. J. Taylor in 
Latin and mathematics; and F. A. Parker, in vocal and instru- 
mental music. Alice J. Craig was employed as instructor in 
elocution. 



SKETCHES OF THE 



CHAPTER XXL 

LITERARY SOCIETIES ORATORICAL ASSOCIATION REGENTS AND 

OFFICERS OF THE BOARD LAW OF 1878 BIOGRAPHICAL 

SKETCHES OF LAW PROFESSORS PROFESSORS ELECTED AS- 
SEMBLY HALL AND LIBRARY TWENTY-NINTH UNIVERSITY 

YEAR CONCLUSION. 

Beside the two literary societies already mentioned the 
Athenaean and Hesperian there are four others connected 
with the University: the Calliopean, Linonian, Castalian, and 
Laurean. All are sustained with great interest, and furnish 
valuable aid in the intellectual training of the student. These 
societies admit to membership students connected with all 
the classes. 

An oratorical association was formed by the University stu- 
dents, in September, 1874, the object of which is the cultiva- 
tion of oratory. It is connected with a state association of the 
same character, organized by the principal colleges of Wis- 
consin; the latter, with an inter-state association, represent- 
ing Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Wisconsin. 
A competitive contest is first held in each institution, the 
successful competitor taking part in the state meeting, and 
the one who is there adjudged as first on the list, represents 
the state at the final contest. The University of Wisconsin 
has been three times honored with the highest prize at the state 
contests: in 1875, by J. M. Mills; in 1876, by A. S. Ritchie; 
and in 1879, by R. M. La Follette, the last mentioned win- 
ning the highest honor at the inter-state contest. 

Under the provisions of the reconstruction act of 1866, there 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN . 219 

were appointed by the governor, on the twenty-fifth of May, 
of that year, as regents of the University, the following per- 
sons, whose terms of office would expire on the first Monday 
of February, in the years named: from the first congressional 
district, Jackson Hadley, 1869, and B. R. Hinkley, 1868; sec- 
ond congressional district, N. B. Van Slyke, 1869, and R. B. 
Sanderson, 1867; third district, J. B. Parkinson, 1868, and 
J. C. Cover, 1867; fourth district, C. S. Hamilton, 1869, and 
F. O. Thorp, 1867; filth district, Jacob S. Bugh, 1868, and 
A. L. Smith, same year; sixth district, Angus Cameron, 1869, 
and Milton B. Axtell, 1867; at large, Samuel Fallows, 1868; 
Edward Soloman, 1869, and J. G. McMynn, 1867. 

On the seventh of February, 1867, the governor appointed 
H. D. Barron in placD of M. B. Axtell, whose term of office 
had expired; while R. B. Sanderson, F. O. Thorp, J. G. 
McMynn, and J. C. Cover, whose terms had likewise expired, 
were reappointed, all to hold to 1870. On the seventh of 
March, 1867, Harrison C. Hobart was appointed in place of 
Jackson Hadley, deceased. On the twenty-second of January, 
1868, Jacob S. Bugh was reappointed, for another term; while 
the place of J. B. Parkinson, whose term had expired, was 
filled by John Lawler. The following, whose terms had ex- 
pired, were reappointed: A. L. Smith, B. R. Hinkley, and 
Samuel Fallows. The five were to hold office until 1871. 

The governor of the state appointed on the second of Feb- 
ruary, 1869, as regents, to hold office until 1872, A. Van 
Wyck, as successor to H. C. Hobart, and J. C. Gregory, as 
successor to Edward Soloman. Charles S. Hamilton, N. B. 
Van Slyke, and Angus Cameron, were reappointed. On the 
twenty- sixth of June, H. H. Gray was appointed in place of 
John Lawler, resigned, to hold to 1871. On the eighteenth 
of January, 1870, Jerome R. Brigham was put in the place of 
J. G. McMynn, resigned, to hold a few days; and on the eighth 
of the next month he was reappointed, his term of office to ex- 
pire in 1873. On the same day, the governor reappointed for 
the same length of time, F. O. Thorp and and R. B. Sander- 



220 SKETCHES OF THE 

son. On the seventh of June, following, H. D. Barren was 
reappointecl, to hold office to 1873. On the twenty-third of 
the last mentioned month, H. K. Smith was appointed, to hold 
nntil 1872, in the place of A. Van Wyck, resigned. 

On the seventeenth of January, 1871, the governor appoint- 
ed James M. Flower, in place of Samuel Fallows (who had 
been elected state superintendent of public instruction), to 
hold until the following month. On. the seventh of February, 
there were reappointed, Jacob S. Bugh, A. D. Smith, H. H. 
Gray, and B. R. Hinkley, to continue in office until 1874. On 
the eighteenth, following, "W. W. Field was appointed in 
place of J. C. Cover, resigned, to continue to 1873. The gov- 
ernor, on the eleventh of January, 1872, apppointed Jerome 
R. Brigham, in place of H. K. Smith, resigned, to hold office 
to 1875; on the fifth of the following month, to continue for 
the same length of time, there were reappointed Angus Cam- 
eron, C. S. Hamilton, and J. C. Gregory; while N. B. Van 
Slyke was put in the place of R. B. Sanderson, resigned, to 
continue to 1873. 

Under the law of 1872, the governor, on the thirtieth of 
January, 1873, reappointed H. D. Barren, for the eighth con- 
gressional district, to hold to 1876. On the twenty-first of the 
following' month, N. B. Van Slyke was appointed, under the 
same law, for the state at large, to continue in office to 1870. 
The appointments for 1874 were made on the twenty-fifth of 
April, all to continue in office until 1877: Geo. H. Paul was 
appointed for the state at large; H. G. Winslow for the first 
congressional district, as successor to B. R. Hinkley; P. A. 
Orton, for the third, as successor to H. H. Gray; and Thomas 
B. Chynoweth, as successor of A. L. Smith, for the sixth dis- 
trict. On the second of February, 1875, J. C. Gregory was 
reappointed from the second congressional district, to continue 
to 1878. On the sixteenth of the same month, Matthew 
Keenan was appointed the successor of J. R. Brigham, from 
the fourth district, and Thomas D. Steel, that of Angus Cam- 
eron, of the seventh district, both to serve until 1878. On the 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 221 

eighth of March, Conrad Krez was appointed the successor of 
C. S. Hamilton from the fifth district, to serve also to 1878. 
On the ninth of December, following, J. K. Williams took the 
place of P. A. Orton, resigned, to continue to 1877. 

There were only two appointments made in the year 1876; 
that of H. D. Barren, on the fourth of March, who was reap- 
pointed from the eighth district, and that of N. B. Van Slyke, 
also reappointed, on the fourth of April, for the state at large: 
both to hold office until 1879. For 1877, the appointments 
were: J. B. Cassoday, on the first day of February, from the 
first district, as successor of H. G. Winslow; T. B. Chynoweth, 
on the same day, reappointed, from the sixth district; William 
E. Carter, also on the same day, as successor of J. K. Williams, 
from the third district: all these to hold office to 1880. On 
the fifteenth of that month, J. M. Bingharn took the place of 
H. D. Barren, resigned, to hold to 1879. On the tenth of 
October, following, E. W. Keyes was appointed regent at 
large, to hold to 1880, as successor of George H. Paul, whose 
term had expired. 

In 1878, George Koeppen was appointed as successor of M, 
Keenan, from the fourth district; T. D. Steele was reappoint- 
ed from the seventh, and J. C. Gregory, also reappointed, from 
the second district. These appointments were all three made 
on the eighth of February, the terms of each to continue to 
1881. On the fourteenth of the same month, Hiram Smith 
was appointed as successor of Conrad Krez, from the fifth dis- 
trict, for the same length of time. Up to the month of June in 
1879, the governor had appointed C. C. Washburn as success- 
or of N. B. Van Slyke, regent at large, to hold to 1882; and 
James M. Bingham was : reappointed for the state at large, to 
hold for the same time. Both these appointments were made 
on the thirtieth of January. On the twenty- first of May, L. 
B. Sale was put in the place of T. B. Chynoweth, resigned, 
from the sixth district, to continue to 1880. On the same 
day, George H. Paul was appointed in place of C. C. Wash- 
burn, declined, as regent at large, to hold office to 1882. 



222 SKETCHES OF THE 

By an act approved February 24, 1879, the government of 
the University was vested in a board of regents, to consist of 
one from each congressional district of the state, and two 
from the state at large, who should be residents of different 
congressional districts, to be appointed by the governor; the 
state superintendent of public instruction, during his term of 

Office; AND THE HONORABLE CADWALLADER C. WASIIBURN, FOR 
AND DURING HIS GOOD PLEASURE, AS AN HONORARY MEMBER 
OF SAID BOARD, WITH THE SAME POWER AS ANY OTHER MEM- 
BER. The full term of office of the regents so appointed by 
the governor, it was declared should be three years from the 
first Monday of February in the year in which they were or 
should thereafter be appointed, unless sooner removed by the 
governor; but appointments to fill vacancies, before the expi- 
ration of a term, it was provided, should be for the residue of 
the term only. 

The following persons have served as presidents of the board 
of regents, from its organization to the present time: Eleazer 
Root, pro tern., elected October 7, 1848; John H. Lathrop, ex 
officio, assumed the duties of his office November 21, 1849; 
Henry Barnard, ex officio, met with the board, for the first 
time, February 8, 1859; Louis P. Harvey, pro tern., elected 
January 16, 1861; James T. Lewis, pro tern., elected January 
15, 1862; Josiah L. Pickard, pro tern., elected June 24, 1862; 
John G. McMynn, pro tern., elected January 18, 1865; Edward 
Soloman, elected June 27, 1866; Charles S. Hamilton, Febru- 
ary 10, 1869; George H. Paul, March 11, 1875; James M. 
Binghani, November 20, 1877; and Cadwallader C. Wash- 
burn, on the seventeenth of June, 1879. 

Julius T. Clark was elected secretary October 7, 1848; 
James D. Ruggles, September 25, 1856; David H. Tullis, 
June 26, 1861; Thomas S. Allen, ex officio, entered upon the 
duties of secretary, June 27, 1866; John S. Dean, elected 
February, 1869. 

John H. Rountree was elected treasurer October 7, 1848; 
Thomas W. Sutherland, January 16, 1849; Simeon Mills, No- 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN- 223 

vember 21, 1849; William N, Seymour, January 31, 1856; 
Nathaniel W. Dean, January 20, 1858; Timothy Brown, Sep- 
tember 30, 1861. The treasurer of state, ex officio, began the 
discharge of the duties of treasurer of the board of regents 
June 27, 1861, since which time the position has been filled 
by state incumbents. 

The revised statutes of Wisconsin of 1878, under the head 
of public instruction, treat of the University, of normal schools 
and academies, of common schools, and of the distribution of 
the school fund income. Under this title, the University is 
properly placed at the head of the public institutions of learn- 
ing of the state. The law embodied in the twenty-fifth chap- 
ter of these statutes is, in reality, a codification of preexisting 
laws concerning its management and support. It eliminates 
the objectionable features of previous acts in force, and leaves 
little to be added, it is believed, by future amendments. The 
name of the institution is reiterated "The University of 
Wisconsin," and is much to be commended for its simplicity. 
In giving the objects of the University, the words of the law 
of 1866 are substantially repeated: "The object of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin shall be to provide the means of acquir- 
ing a thorough knowledge of the various branches of learning 
connected with scientific, industrial, and professional pursuits." 
Surely this is explicit and comprehensive. It is declared that 
" the University shall be open to female as well as to male 
students, under such regulations and* restrictions as the board 
of regents may deem proper." For the support and endow- 
ment of the institution, there is annually and perpetually ap- 
propriated: (1) the university fund income; (2) agricultural 
college income; (3) public and private contributions; (4) in- 
come derived from a tax of one-tenth of a mill upon the tax- 
able property of the state. 

The law department of the University of Wisconsin has had, 
from its commencement, the advantage of lectures from 
law professors who are all men having practical knowl- 
edge of their respective subjects of instruction. Beside the 



224 SKETCHES OF THE 

two professors previously named Byron Paine and Harlow 
S. Orton there have been engaged in this department as pro- 
fessors of law, J. B. Cassoday, Philip L. Spooner, Jarius H. 
Carpenter, S. U. Pinney, William F. Vilas, I. C. Sloan, W. 
P. Lyon, J. C- Hopkins, and Orsamus Cole. 

if J. B. Cassoday was born July 7, 1830, in Herkimer county, 
New York. In early childhood, f he was taken by a widowed 
mother to Tioga county, Pennsylvania, where they resided. 
Until the age of sixteen, his education was received at the 
common schools; he then attended an academy in Wellsboro 1 , 
one term. He afterward taught school, and worked at farm- 
ing and other manual labor. Subsequently, he studied at 
Union academy, in Knoxville, Pennsylvania, and then at 
Alfred academy, in Alleghany county, New York, where he 
graduated, it being equivalent to the finishing of the sopho- 
more year in college. He again engaged in teaching, and 
finally went to Michigan university, where he remained one 
year, taking a select course. He then read law, and spent a 
year at the Albany (Ne\v York) law school and in a law office 
at Wellsboro'. He came to Janesville, Wisconsin, in July, 
1857, where he continued his legal studies, entering upon the 
practice of his profession in 1858, and has since continued 
his professional labors in that city. He was a delegate to the 
national republican convention, in 1864, and a member of the 
assembly in 1865. He was again chosen assemblyman in 
1877, and presided as speaker over the assembly during the 
thirtieth session of the legislature. 

Philip L. Spooner was born January 27, 1811, in Bristol 
county, Massachusetts. His early education was only that of 
the common schools and academy. He w T as admitted to the 
practice of the law in 1832; pursued his profession at Law- 
renceburgh, Indiana, until June, 1859, when he removed to 
Madison, Wisconsin, since which time he has engaged in the 
practice of his profession to some extent; having held, for a 
year or two, the office of .reporter of the supreme court of the 
state, and some two years or more, the office of assistant 
attorney general. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 225 

Jarius H. Carpenter, a native of Ashford, Connecticut, was 
born on the fourteenth of February, 1825. With the excep- 
tion 'of three or four terms spent in Holliston academy, he re- 
ceived his education in the common schools. After closing 1 
his studies, he engaged for a time in teaching, and later be- 
gan the study of law, completing his preparatory profession- 
al studies with L. P. Waldo, of Tollancl, Connecticut. In 
March, 1847, he was admitted to the bar, and the same year 
engaged in the practice of his profession at Willimantic, Con- 
necticut. In 1857, he removed to Wisconsin, and settled at 
his present home, in Madison. He has been, for a number of 
years, a member of the Madison board of education. The hon- 
orary degree of master of arts was conferred on him by Yale 
college, in 1874; and, as already mentioned, that of doctor of 
laws, by the University of Wisconsin, in 1875. Dr. Carpen- 
ter was one of the revisers of the Wisconsin statutes of 1878, 
and as such, prepared Title XXIX., entitled, " proceedings in 
the county courts." He was also one of the two persons ap- 
pointed to superintend the publication of the work. 

Silas U. Pinney was born in Rockdale, Crawford county, 
Pennsylvania, March 3, 1833. He received a common school 
education. In 184G, he removed, with his parents, to Dane 
county, Wisconsin. He read law in Madison, where he was 
admitted to the bar in February, 1854. He has ever since 
practiced his profession in that city. He was city attorney in 
1858; a member of the city council in 1865, and mayor in 
1874. He was a member of the assembly in 1875. ' 

William F. Vilas was born in Chelsea, Orange county, Ver- 
mont, July 9, 1840. With his parents, he removed to Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin, in 1851. He graduated at the University of 
Wisconsin, as previously mentioned, in 1858. He also grad- 
uated at the Albany (New York) law school, in I860. He was 
admitted to practice in July, of the same year, and has since 
that date followed his profession in Madison. He served in 
the war for the suppression of the southern rebellion, being 
mustered into the twenty-third regiment, Wisconsin volunteer 



226 SKETCHES OF THE 

infantry, August 25, 1862, as captain of company "A," which 
he raised. He was mustered out as lieutenant-colonel of the 
same regiment. He was one of the trustees of the state sol- 
diers' orphan asylum, and secretary of the board: and one of 
the three counselors appointed by the supreme court of the 
state, to revise the statutes of Wisconsin, under the act of 
1875, for that purpose. He was also appointed, with Dr. J. H. 
Carpenter, to superintend the publication of the work. 

Ithamar C. Sloan was born in Madison county, New York. 
He received a common school education, and afterward studied 
law. He was adnitted to the bar in New York, in 1848, and 
practiced five years at Oneida. In November, 1853, he re- 
moved to Wisconsin, locating at Janesville, Rock county. He 
was elected, in 1857, district attorney for that county, hold- 
ing the office four years. In 1862, he was elected a represen- 
tative from the second congressional district of Wisconsin to 
the thirty- eighth congress, serving on the committee on pub- 
lic lands, and also on that on expenses in the war department. 
He was reelected to the thirty-ninth congress, serving on the 
committee on the death of President Lincoln; also, on claims, 
and expenses of the war department. He is now practicing 
his profession at Madison, Wisconsin. 

William Penn Lyon was born October 28, 1822, at Chatham, 
Columbia county, New York. He received a common school 
education; and in 1841, along with his parents, emigrated to 
Wai Worth county, Wisconsin. He read la\v with George Gale, 
at Elkhorn, and C. M. Baker, at Geneva, Wisconsin, being 
admitted to the Walworth county bar in May, 1846. He 
commenced the practice of his profession in Walworth county, 
where he continued till 1850, when he removed to Burlington, 
Racine county. There he practiced in partnership with C. P. 
Barnes until 1855, when he removed to the city of Racine. 
He practiced there until 1861. He was district attorney of 
Racine county from 1855 to 1858, inclusive, and was member 
and speaker of the assembly for the years 1859 and 1860. 
He entered the Union army as captain of company " K," of 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 227 

the Eighth Wisconsin volunteer infantry. He was commis- 
sioned as colonel of the Thirteenth Wisconsin, in September, 
1862, and was mustered out in 1865, receiving the brevet rank 
of brigadier general of volunteers. Meanwhile, he was elect- 
ed judge of the first judicial circuit of the state, for the term 
commencing January 1, 1866. He served in that capacity 
until January, 1871, when he was appointed, by Governor 
Fairchild, an associate justice of the supreme court, to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of Justice Byron Paine. In the 
following April, he was elected for the unexpired term of 
.Justice Paine; also for the ensuina full term. He was reelect- 

* o 

cd in April, 1877, for a term which expires in January, 1884. 

James Campbell Hopkins was born in the town of Pawlet, 
Vermont, April 27, 1819, and was, at the time of his death, in 
the fifty-ninth year of his age. His ancestors, both paternal 
and maternal, were Scotch-Irish. When about five years of 
age, he, with his parents, removed to the to\\n of Hebron, 
Washington county, New York, and not long afterward, to 
the town of Granville, where he resided until he commenced 
his professional career. He was educated at the academy, in 
North Granville, and in the spring of 1840, entered upon the 
study of law in the office of James McCall, at Sandy Hill, New 
York, and afterward continued it in the office of Messrs. 
Bishop and Agan, at Granville. He was admitted to the bar 
at the January term of the supreme court, in Albany, New 
York, in 1845, and immediately after, began the practice of 
his profession with Mr. Agan, at Granville, continuing with 
him about two years, and then forming a law partnership with 
Mr. Bishop, which continued until he removed to Madison, 
Wisconsin, in the spring of 1856. He was postmaster at 
Granville for a period of five years, and in 1853 he was elect- 
ed to the senate of New York, from the district then com- 
posed of the counties of Saratoga and Washington; he was an 
active, influential, and efficient senator, and a member of the 
judiciary committee of that body. 

Upon his settlement in Madison, he became associated in 



228 SKETCHES OF THE 

practice with Hon. Harlovv S. Orton, and at once entered up- 
on a large and successful business. Soon after his arrival in 
Wisconsin, a code of practice, substantially like that of New 
York, was adopted, and he performed the principal work in 
arranging it, and adapting it to the provisions of the constitu- 
tion arid judicial system of the state. Politically, he was an 
ardent whig, so long as that party existed, and on the forma- 
tion of the republican party, allied himself and acted with 
that organization; but during his residence in Wisconsin, he 
gave but little attention to politics, his time being entirely 
occupied with the duties of his profession. He manifested 
but little or no ambition for the doubtful honors of modern 
political life. 

He was an excellent lawyer, well read in his profession, and 
entirely devoted to its duties. With a clear, discriminating 
mind, familiar with the practical affairs of business men and 
the methods of business transactions; and, with a judgment 
rarely at fault, he was a cautious, safe, and reliable counselor. 
He was a close student; prepared his cases for trial or argu- 
ment with care; and was almost certain to be ready whenever 
they were reached, and for any emergency which might be 
reasonably anticipated. In the presentation of them, whether 
to the jury or the court, he was clear in statement, incisive, 
vigorous and able in argument; and, keeping clearly in view 
the practical necessities of the case, he sought rather to in- 
struct and convince, than to entertain or captivate his hearers; 
and whether at nisi prius or before the appellate court, he 
was a wary, vigilant, and formidable opponent. Quick to de- 
tect an error or mistake, he was certain to take advantage of 
and expose it. In his intercourse with his professional breth- 
ren, he was obliging and courteous, and with an extensive 
fund of general knowledge, he was a pleasing and instruct- 
ive conversationlaist. Added to these advantages, his habits of 
great industry and promptness in the discharge of his duties, 
personal as well as professional, enabled him to acquire an ex- 
tensive and lucrative practice, and a prominent position in the 
front rank of the bar of the state. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 229 

He continued to practice his profession in Madison until, 
by an act of congress of June 29, 1870, Wisconsin was divid- 
ed into two judicial circuits, the eastern and the western, 
when, on the ninth of July, 1870, he was commissioned as dis- 
trict judge for the newly-created western district. He at once 
entered upon the discharge ot the duties of his position, and 
until his last illness, he devoted, with unremitting zeal and 
industry, all his learning, his extensive experience, and dis- 
tinguished ability to the requirements of his judicial station. 
A love ol order and prompt and exact administration of the 
law, and his kindly courtesy and unwearied patience, render- 
ed practice in the court in which he presided pleasant and 
attractive. Counsel never had occasion to complain that they 
had not been fully and fairly heard before him, or that even 
an implied restraint had been placed on an exhaustive discus- 
sion of all their points. 

In the hearing and decision of equity causes, and in the ad- 
ministration of the system of bankruptcy then in force, with 
which he became thoroughly conversant and skilled in its 
prompt and efficient administration, he had few, if any 
superiors. He delivered many valuable opinions which stand 
deservedly high as authority on questions of bankruptcy law. 
Long- familiarity with, and wide and varied experience in 
business transactions, enabled him to easily master the details 
of a cause, and readily perceive the precise point upon 
which it depended. He was quick to detect any artifice, 
fraud, or sham, and prompt and resolute to expose and re- 
buke it. * * * During the seven years of his 
judicial life, when not engaged in his own district, his time 
was almost constantly occupied in holding court in other dis- 
tricts of the circuit, and frequently at Chicago, where he was 
highly esteemed as an able judge. Wherever it was his for- 
tune to preside, he won, as in his own district, the confidence 
and respect of the profession, and all interested in the orderly, 
intelligent, and impartial administration of justice. He was a 



230 SKETCHES OF THE 

genial gentleman, an excellent lawyer, and an able and faith- 
ful judge. He died in Madison, September 3, 1877.* 

Orsanms Cole was born in Casanovia, Madison county, New 
York, August 23, 1829. He received a common school and 
academic education attending an academy at Clinton, New 
York, and one at Watertown, in the same state. In 1841, he 
entered Union college, at Schenectady, New York, graduating 
in 1843. For nearly two years after, he had charge of an 
academy at Bellville, New York, reading law at the same 
place. He came to Chicago in August, 18*5, and Avas admit- 
ted to the bar in the fall of that year. In December, follow- 
ing, he came to Wisconsin territory, settling at Potosi, Grant 
county, and entered at once upon the practice of his profes- 
sion. In 18 7, he was elected a member of the convention 
which formed the constitution of the state; and, in June, 1848, 
he was chosen a member of the national convention which 
nominated Zachary Taylor for president of the United States. 
In the autumn of that year, he was elected a member of con- 
gress from the second congressional district of Wisconsin. 
He was elected, in April, 1855, an associate justice of the 
supreme court of the state, for a full term of six years; was 
reelected, for a full term, in 1861; again elected, in 1867, for 
six years; elected the fourth time, in 1873, for a full term; 
and, in April^ 1879, for a term of ten years. 

January 21, 1879, a professorship of astronomy was cre- 
ated; one of physics, as a partial substitute for that of 
astronomy and physics before that time existing; another, of 
zoology; a fourth and additional one, of Greek; a fifth one, ot 
English language and literature, the professorship of logic 
and English literature being abolished; and a sixth, of history 
of philosophy and of logic. On the same day, James C. 
Watson was elected professor of astronomy, that department 
being separated from the chair of physics; Edward A. Birge 
was elected professor of zoology; John C. Freeman, professor 

*From the pen of Hon. S. U. Pinney, Madison, Wisconsin. Bissell's 
Reports, U. 8. Courts, Seventh Oircuit,Yol. VII. 1874-1878. pp. 11-13. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 231 

of English language and literature; and Allan D. Conover, 
professor of civil and mechanical engineering. Prof. Watson 
was also,, at the same date, elected director of the Washburn 
observatory. On the seventeenth of June, following, William 
H. Rosenstengel was elected to the chair of German language 
and literature, and Edward T. Owen, to that of French lan- 
guage and literature, both of these professorships being 
established at that date, while that of modern language and 
comparative philology was abolished. 

The contract for building the assembly hall and library 
building was let to John Bentley and son, contractors, of Mil- 
waukee, early in September, 1878. The plan and specifica- 
tions were drawn by D. R. Jones, architect, of Madison, Wis- 
consin. The assembly hall is one story high, with a gallery; 
it is built in modern gothic style, of Madison stone, trimmed 
with Lake Superior brown sand-stone; and presents an impos- 
ing appearance. Its tower contains a clock and bell. The 
size of this building is, in its extreme length each way, about 
seventy-two feet. It has a seating capacity of six hundred in 
the audience room, and two hundred in the gaHery. The library 
department is one story, also, with a gallery, and is built of 
the same material as the assembly hall, with which it is con- 
nected. It has also the same general style, and is no wise in- 
ferior in its architectural appearance to that department. The 
size is fifty by seventy-five feet. It has a capacity of sixty 
thousand volumes, and is arranged with alcoves, and well 
lighted. 

The twenty-ninth university year began on the fourth day 
of September, 1878, and ended June 18, 1879, with the grad- 
uation, in arts, of John Anderson, Geo. M. Bascom, Clarence 
Dennis, Flora E. Dodge, Archibald Durrie, Oliver G. Ford, 
H. C. Martin, David Mason, Lewis Ostensen, and J. B. Simp- 
son: in letters, of C. H. Albertson, Jennie Bascom, Mary 
Bunn, Belle Case, Lulu C. Daniels, Abby W. Jewett, E. J. 
Paul, Katharine C. Paul, Arthur Puls, Susie A. Sterling, Geo. 
L. Voorhees, and Flora E. Dodge: in science, of John G. Con- 



232 SKETCHES OF THE 

way, A. G. Dennett, W. E. Dennett, Ida M. Hoyt, J. H. 
Hutchinson, K. K, Knapp, R. M. La Follette, Jesse M. Meyer, 
E. B. Oakley, A. D. Prideaux, Edith M. Stearns, John "w. 
Thomas, E. W. Davis, and, by special favor, J. W. Fisher: in 
mining and metallurgy, C. R. Vanhise: in law, of W. H. 
Allen, Perry Baird, J. H. Berryman, H. S. Butler, Geo. De 
Clerk, H. G. Dickie, L. A. Doolittle, J. A. Eggen, C. X. 
Harris, E. A. Hayes, F. N. Hendrix, J. W. Ivey, John Kelley, 
Jr., C. H. Ladd, G. L. Kurtz, P. H. Martin, Seth Mills, Howard 
Morris, C. H. Oakey, J. M. Olin, Jermain Post, A. C. Prescott, 
Tennis Slingerland, and Otto Peemiller. The oration before 
the alumni association was delivered by Arthur Chetlain, of 
the class of 1870, and the poem was read by Mrs. Clara J. 
Porter, of the class of 1865. The Lewis prize was awarded to 
Belle Case. 

The University of Wisconsin will begin, on the third day of 
September, 1879, its thirtieth year, under favorable auspices, 
indeed, under more encouragements than at the commence- 
ment of any previous year. Its library contains nearly ten 
thousand volumes. The best American and foreign periodi- 
cals are taken. The institution is provided with extensive 
and valuable geological and mineralogical cabinets and col- 
lections in natural history; also, with well-selected philosoph- 
ical and chemical apparatus. Its chemical, mineralogical, and 
assay laboratories are well supplied with apparatus and chem- 
icals, affording excellent facilities for the prosecution of stud- 
ies in their respective departments of science; and the Wash- 
burn astronomical observatory is in the hands of an exper- 
ienced astronomer. 

It is the aim of the University to meet the highest educa- 
tional wants of every student. In the optional studies and 
post-graduate course, there is provision for all the demands of 
higher scholarship. The courses of study in the institution 
are arranged in accordance, so far as may be, with that sec- 
tion of the revised statutes of 1878, which declares that "the 
college of arts shall embrace courses of instruction in the 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. 

mathematical, physical, and natural sciences, with their appli- 
cation to the industrial arts, such as agriculture, mechanics 
and engineering, mining and metallurgy, manufactures, archi- 
tecture, and commerce; in such branches included in the col- 
lege of letters as shall be necessary to a proper fitting of the 
pupils in the scientific and practical courses for their chosen 
pursuits; and in military tactics; and as soon as the income 
of the University shall allow, in such order as the wants of the 
public shall seem to require, the said courses in the sciences 
and their application to the practical arts shall be expanded 
into distinct colleges of the University, each with its own fac- 
ulty and appropriate title. The college of letters shall be co- 
existent with the college of arts, and shall embrace a liberal 
course of instruction in language, literature, and philosophy, 
together with such courses or parts of courses in the college of 
arts as the authorities of the University shall prescribe." 

The college of arts embraces the departments of general 
science, agriculture, civil engineering, mechanical engineer- 
iug, mining and metallurgy, and military science. The col- 
lege of letters embraces the departments of ancient classics, 
modern classics, and the department of law. That the Uni- 
versity will continue to increase in usefulness and importance 
is now fully assured. It has a president, who is fully equal to 
the emergencies and duties of his high office; it has a faculty 
composed of professors thoroughly imbued with the subjects 
they are called upon to teach; it has a board of regents made 
up of members having broad and liberal views; and above all, 
it has the confidence and hearty good-will of citizens in all 
parts of the state. 



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